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A guest editorial provides an opportunity for an author to reflect on a recent event, methodological innovation, or gap in the literature. Many successful editorials do all three, culminating in proposing an agenda for the discipline.
A book review is a form of literary criticism in which a book is analyzed based on content, style, and merit. A book review can be a primary source opinion piece, summary review or scholarly review. Books can be reviewed for printed periodicals, magazines and newspapers, as school work, or for book web sites on the Internet. A book review's length may vary from a single paragraph to a substantial essays. Such a review may evaluate the book on the basis of personal taste. Reviewers may use the occasion of a book review for a display of learning or to promulgate their own ideas on the topic of a fiction or non-fiction work.
Analyze or discuss research previously published by others, rather than reporting new experimental results. An expert's opinion is valuable, but an expert's assessment of the literature can be more valuable. When reading individual articles, readers could miss features that are apparent to an expert clinician-researcher. Readers benefit from the expert's explanation and assessment of the validity and applicability of individual studies.
Review articles come in the form of literature reviews and, more specifically, systematic reviews; both are a form of secondary literature. Literature reviews provide a summary of what the authors believe are the best and most relevant prior publications. Systematic reviews determine an objective list of criteria, and find all previously published original experimental papers that meet the criteria; they then compare the results presented in these papers.
A research article reports the results of original research, assesses its contribution to the body of knowledge in a given area of experimental studies in elaborate form that constitute a significant contribution to knowledge. Research articles generally consist of the following components: Title, Abstract, Keywords, an Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgement (If Any) and References.
A case report is generally considered a type of anecdotal evidence. Given their intrinsic methodological limitations, including lack of statistical sampling, case reports are placed at the foot of the hierarchy of clinical evidence, together with case series. Nevertheless, case reports do have genuinely useful roles in medical research and evidence-based medicine. In particular, they have facilitated recognition of new diseases and adverse effects of treatments. Case reports have a role in pharmacovigilance. They can also help understand the clinical spectrum of rare diseases, as well as unusual presentations of common diseases. They can help generate study hypotheses, including plausible mechanisms of disease. Case reports may also have a role to play in guiding the personalization of treatments in clinical practice. The case reports should include unstructured abstract, key words, introduction, case report,brief discussion and conclusion with references.
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