International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Dr B Srinivasulu M.D (Ayu.) Open Journal Systems <div align="justify"> <p class="para1"><strong>International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research (IJAPR)</strong>&nbsp;is an international peer reviewed Monthly open access Online and Print journal. The aim of the journal is to increase the impact of research in both academic and industry, with strong emphasis on quality and originality. The journal promotes to publish the articles in the field of&nbsp;<strong>Ayurveda, Siddha, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Homeopathy and Allopathy</strong>&nbsp;systems of medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Researchers may submit (1). Original Research Articles (2). Review articles (3). Book Reviews (4). Short Communications/ Research Letter (5). Case Report (6). Letter to the Editor/Correspondence.</p> </div> Effect of Prathimarsa Nasya and Abhyanga on the Physical Fitness among Athletes in the Sports Hostel of Mar Basil Higher Secondary School Kothamangalam 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Saritha S Jyothi R Nafeesath Beevi <p>Physical fitness has direct influence on athlete’s performance level. Sports medicine deals with the physical fitness and the treatment of injury related to sports and exercise by curative, rehabilitative and preventive modalities. Ayurveda the complete science of life can contribute in this field also. <em>Abhyanga </em>and <em>Prathimarsa nasya</em> are important <em>Dinacharya</em> procedures which play a key role in the maintenance of health and fitness of athletes. Regular <em>Abhyanga </em>controls <em>Vata dosas</em> and improves physical strength. <em>Prathimarsa nasya</em> improves the musculature of neck shoulder and chest. Ayurveda classics advice <em>Abhyanga</em> with <em>Thila thailam</em> and <em>Prathimarsa</em> <em>Nasya</em> with <em>Anuthailam</em> as a daily regimen for healthy individual. This study is being made to highlight the application of these Ayurveda <em>Dinachary</em><em>a</em> procedures in promoting the physical fitness of sports persons. This study is a single group pre-post study. 47 subjects of age group 12–18 participating in athletic events were selected from the Sports Hostel of Mar Basil Higher Secondary School Kothamangalam as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After necessary investigations participants had been advised to follow the daily regimen <em>Abhyanga</em> with <em>Thila Thaila </em>after work out, half an hour before bath and <em>Prathimarsa Nasyam</em> with <em>Anuthailam </em>in morning, between 6am- 6.30am for 60 days continuously. Assessments were done on 31<sup>st</sup> day, 61<sup>st</sup> day and 91<sup>st</sup> day (follow up). Scores recorded for test items were converted into marks as per formula based on AAHPER fitness test chart and subjected to statistical analysis using repeated measure ANOVA test. Results showed that <em>Pratimarsha nasya</em> and <em>Abhyanga</em> have statistical significance in improving the physical fitness variables and overall performance level of athletes.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Determination of Polyphenolic Compounds Present in Guduchyadi Kashaya Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Sruthi S S S Anand <p>The utilization of various contemporary analytical methods has become indispensable when it comes to assessing polyherbal Ayurvedic formulations, aiming to ensure their quality, safety, and effectiveness. Quality control of herbal medicines involve analytical evaluation using instrumental techniques such as TLC, HPTLC, HPLC, GC-MS, LC-MS and spectrophotometer etc. Among them Liquid Chromatography with tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a powerful hyphenated analytical technique that combines the separating power of liquid chromatography with the mass analysis capabilities of mass spectrometry. Generally, its application is oriented towards the specific detection and potential identification of chemicals in a complex mixture. Polyphenolic compounds are usually referred to as a diverse group of naturally occurring compounds containing multiple phenolic functionalities. The anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, antiproliferative, and antioxidant like biological properties of phenolic compounds have been described in several studies. This research study was taken to analyse polyphenolic compounds in <em>Guduchyadi</em> <em>kashaya</em> by LC-MS/MS. Phenolic compounds are abundant in the ingredients of <em>Guduchyadi</em> <em>kashaya</em>, as evidenced by previous studies. So, to determine the polyphenolic contents of <em>Guduchyadi kashaya</em>, this study was conducted. The quantification of the polyphenols was carried out on Shimadzu Shim Pack GISS C18 column with .1%formic acid as mobile phase. A total of 28 polyphenolic compounds were analysed, and 24 of these compounds were found to be present in <em>Guduchyadi kashaya</em>. The results showed that the phenolic compounds present in the ingredients were also present in the formulation in high abundance.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Formulation and Standardisation of Nutraceutical Prepared with Mudga and Shatavari for Health and Nutrition 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Anila Nair Mangala D. Wange Mrudul Y Chitrakar Lonkar <p>According to Acharya Kashyapa, <em>Aahara</em> is <em>Mahabheshaja</em>. Ayurveda is an untapped source of vast information about nutrition providing foods, drinks and regimen. There are healthier and effective replacements for the health supplements available in the market. <em>Mudga</em> is a common pulse found in almost every Indian household is fortified with <em>Shatavari</em> which is very well known for its <em>balya rasayana</em> action</p> <p>In this study <em>Palalam</em> (Ladoo) having reference in Bhavaprakasha Nighantu Kritaanavarga / 132 is made with modifications using <em>Mudga</em>, <em>Shatavari</em> and <em>Tugaksheeri</em>. Formulation, standardization, nutritional analysis, shelf life analysis, sensory tests of <em>Mudga</em> <em>Shatavari Palalam</em> is done to confirm its efficacy as a health supplement. All the tests were found to be satisfactory.</p> <p>The nutritional values of the product showed that it contains higher amount of nutrition, energy, proteins, dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron and has lower saturated fats, sodium and cholesterol. The <em>Mudga Shatavari</em> Ladoo was found to be fit for consumption, highly palatable and nutritive.</p> <p>Two servings of the product provide a person with 25% of the required daily nutrition. It can be given as a weight supplement to underweight children, lactating mothers, senior citizens, growing children and those having nutritional deficiency disorders and all others in general to improve immunity and to augment the nutrition from their diet.</p> <p>This formulation can also be used in the form of granules, biscuits etc as required. It can also be provided as part of mid-day meals in schools to improve the nutrition in children.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Critical Review of Phanta Kalpana and Phytochemical Comparison of Panchakola Phanta with Panchakola Kashaya 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Haris M.S Sreeni T.V <p><em>Phanta Kalpana, </em>the process of herbal hot infusion is one of the five fundamental Ayurvedic preparations. A unique <em>Kalpana</em> is specifically mentioned for those with a minor illness, little strength, and younger age<em>.</em> However, this <em>Kalpana</em> is not widely utilizing because of the unavailability of scientific data and uncertainty about its action. Even though it is a simple <em>Kalpana</em> while analyzing available references numerous differences were determined among Ayurvedic classics. Differences of opinion or expression of comments noted in drug to water ratio, order mixing of water and drug, temperature of the water, time of contact, Powder size, and the need for stir and strain. Different experiments were conducted based on these parameters. And it shows their significance. In addition, a market sample examination of two separate <em>Kashaya Choornas</em> of two companies&nbsp;produced results with completely different powder sizes. Product output will vary due to these practical variations unless later changes are made to other parameters. Comparative physiochemical and phytochemical analyses of <em>Kashaya </em>and <em>Phanta Kashaya</em> were done. Values are almost similar except for total solid content and GCMS. Total solid rises along with the reduction in <em>Kashya</em>. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents show almost similar values, whereas GCMS analysis shows peaks of some molecules in <em>Phanta Kashaya</em> and peaks of some other molecules in <em>Kashaya Kalpana</em>. So, each of these two <em>Kalpana</em> favors solubilizing and makes bioavailable different ranges of biomolecules. So, each of these <em>Kalpana</em> has a different and specific utility and function.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Effect of Jala Neti and Soopya Yoosha in Allergic Rhinitis 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Divya T Jyothi. R Nafeesath Beevi. A <p>Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem affecting immune system. It is an allergic response to specific allergens causing the inflammation of nasal mucosa. Allergic rhinitis is a major risk factor for poor asthma control and affects quality of life. Cardinal symptoms include nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, and pruritis of the nose and eyes. Patients who suffer from allergic rhinitis sustain significant morbidity and loss of productivity. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis can be co-related with <em>Lakshanas</em> of <em>Pratishyaya</em> mentioned in Ayurveda. This study aimed at yoga therapy and diet as an efficient treatment protocol for the disease. <em>Jalaneti</em> procedure which was mentioned in yoga, helped in preventing and managing upper respiratory tract infections. Since ancient time <em>Yoosha</em> had been suggested as <em>Pathya</em> for both healthy and diseased people. <em>Soopya yoosha</em> containing <em>Mudga</em> and <em>Moolaka</em> is a dietary preparation having <em>Pratishyaya</em><em>hara</em> property. In present study <em>Jalaneti </em>and <em>Soopya yoosha</em> were used in patients of allergic rhinitis.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Pharmaceutical and Physico-Chemical Study of Shilajit Bhasma 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Richa Ojha Ankit Gupta Sanjay Kumar Pandey <p>Although there were mention of <em>Shilajit Bhasma</em> (Calx) in various classical texts, but no specific study or usage of the same found mention in Google Scholar, ARD, Pub-Med, NCBI, AYUSH Research Portal and other open source database. This study is intended for preparation of <em>Shilajit Bhasma</em> (Calx) and assessments of physico-chemical properties of the same. <strong>Methods:</strong> The <em>Bhasma</em> (Calx) of <em>Shilajit</em> was being prepared using classical references, from <em>Shilajit</em> purified with two different methods, namely, <em>Ushna Jal Shodhita Shilajit</em> <em>(Agnitapi) </em>and<em> Triphala Kwatha</em> (decoction) <em>Shodhit Shilajit</em> <em>(Suryatapi)</em>. Main constituents used in <em>Marana</em> (incineration) were purified <em>Gandhak</em> (sulphur), <em>Haritala</em> (orpiment), <em>Manasila</em> (realgar) in equal proportion to <em>Shilajit</em>. <em>IEC </em>No. for the study is IEC-RAC-18/R.S.B.K.-18-M.D.(Ayu.). <strong>Results</strong>: Result of the FE-SEM shows that both samples contain crystalline of nano size, with size ranged from 100nm – 1µm, with irregular shape and sizes. The findings of FE-SEM are in concordance to results of classical examinations of <em>Bhasma</em> (Calx). XRD intensity plots of both samples show various sharp and small peaks, when diffraction patterns were observed at different 2ɵ angles ranges from 10° to 70°, various peaks identified to correspond with known peaks for S &amp; AsS and have been marked on the plots. ICP-MS and flame photometry of both samples reveals the presence of Na, Ca, K, Mg, Mn &amp; As in different ratio. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: It has been concluded that the elemental composition of <em>Shilajit Bhasma</em> have a strong similarity with Purified <em>Shilajit</em>.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Analytical Evaluation of Abhraka Bhasma Samples after Marana, Amritikarana and Lohitikarana 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Arya S Varma Satyanarayana Bhat Dinesh Nayak <p><em>Rasaushadhies</em> or herbo-mineral formulations undergo rigorous processes to convert into nano size. The particle size does matters a lot in terms of absorption, assimilation and proper excretion from the body. The pharmaceutical procedures should be strictly adhered so as to ensure safety and efficacy. <em>Abhraka bhasma</em> is a popularly used formulation in Ayurvedic practice<em>. Abhraka</em> or black mica is a bad conductor of heat. So the process of <em>Bhasmikarana</em> requires high quantum of heat in order to render into <em>Bhasma</em> form. <em>Amritikarana</em> is a specific process included in the preparation of <em>Abhraka bhasma</em>. The current study evaluates the essentiality of this process in <em>Bhasmikarana</em>. A detailed analytical study is been carried out to find the differences in the samples before and after <em>Amritikarana.</em> The present study reveals that the particle size has reduced much and the iron content was at maximum concentration in the samples after the process of <em>Amritikarana</em> and <em>Lohitikarana</em>.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Role of Uttarabasti in Neurogenic Urinary Incontinence 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Athira V. Kottoor Sunil John Thykkattil <p>Neurogenic bladder refers to dysfunction of the urinary bladder arising from internal or external trauma, disease, or injury of the central, autonomic or somatic nervous system in the control of micturition. Depending on the nerves involved and the nature of the damage, bladder becomes either overactive or underactive and this usually presents clinically as urinary incontinence or retention of urine. Urinary Incontinence (UI) is a hygienic problem and is one of the troublesome, important cause of morbidity and impairment of quality of life, in both men and women. It may lead to recurrent UTI and ascending infections which affect the functioning of kidney. Deranged function of <em>Vatadosha</em> especially <em>Apanavata</em> along with <em>Pranavata</em> and <em>Vyanavata</em> are the main culprits of neurogenic bladder. Vitiated <em>Doshas</em> cause <em>Mootravahasrotodushti </em>and <em>Atipravritti </em>of <em>mootra</em>. This case study discusses the effect of <em>Mootramarga uttarabasti</em> in reducing the signs and symptoms of neurogenic urinary incontinence and thereby improving the quality of life. A 66 year old male patient was admitted with weakness in left upper and lower limbs, slurred speech, and difficulty in controlling micturition since 5 months. He was a diagnosed case of stroke on the basis of a brain computed tomography scan. During the course of management, <em>Uttarabasti</em> was administered for 8 days with <em>Dhanwantarataila</em> and <em>Balamoolakashaya</em> alternatively. The intervention resulted in reducing the symptoms of neurogenic urinary incontinence as evidenced by the reduction in ICIQ-UI -SF score. It was observed that the overall impact of the disease was reduced and quality of life improved with the help of King’s Health Questionnaire (KHQ).</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Effect of Mudgadi Kashaya Peya and Selected Yoga Techniques in Overweight 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Arjun Ravi Nafeesath Beevi A Jyothi.R <p>Overweight is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. Once considered a problem only in high-income countries, overweight and obesity are now dramatically on the rise in low and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. Overweight and obesity are the fifth greatest risk factors for death worldwide. Due to secondary consequences including obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, dyslipidemia, etc., the morbidity and mortality of overweight people are rising. Obesity and overweight are primarily caused by an imbalance in energy between calories consumed and calories burned. To maintain balance between the two, the management approach attempts to reduce energy intake while boosting energy expenditure.&nbsp; In Ayurveda, overweight can be correlated to <em>Sthoulya</em>. In this study an intervention along with addition of one dietary intervention was made into the daily routine of subjects. Here yoga is most suitable adaptation of physical activity and <em>Mudgadi kashaya peya</em> is a dietary preparation having <em>Kapha medohara</em> property which can reduce the over gaining weight and presence health.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Ayurvedic Management of Pancreatitis 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Snehal Patel N. Sridhar <p>Pancreatitis is the life threatening metabolic pathology of the gastrointestinal system. It progressively damages the pancreas and result in the loss of its functions. The prevalence rate of pancreatitis in India is 7.9 per 10, 0000. For male and female respectively 8.6 and 8 in India. With overall 10 year and 20 year survival rates are estimated to be about 70% to 45% respectively. In the contemporary science the treatment protocol is limited to painkillers, intravenous fluids and pancreatic enzymes. Despite of advance techniques in the allopathic science the prognosis of the disease is unclear. Ayurvedic formulations of mineral complex including a diet and moderate rest have shown excellent result. In this case report a 40 year old male patient a known case of chronic pancreatitis with recurrent abdominal pain which radiates to back, nausea, vomiting, tenderness, anorexia, along with elevated serum amylase level was managed effectively with Ayurvedic medications by the Department of PG Study in Shalyatantra OPD Dr. BRKR Government Ayurvedic Medical College and Hospital, Hyderabad. In Ayurveda this condition can be correlated <em>Agnashayashoth</em> which comes under <em>Pittodara</em>. And it was successfully treated with the medications like <em>Shankha vati, Kravyadi ras, Arogyavardgani vati.</em> Within 4 months of treatment patient become normal. There was no pain abdomen, nausea, vomiting, bloating of abdomen. And serum amylase came to its normal level. This shows that Ayurvedic herbo mineral formulations showing promising result in the management of pancreatitis.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Ayurvedic Management of Pemphigus Vegetans 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Athira V Kottoor Anjana D Sunil John Thykattil <p>Pemphigus vegetans is a group of autoimmune disorder characterized by mucocutaneous bullae or pustules that erode to form hypertrophic papillated plaques that predominantly involve the scalp, and the face. It is the rarest variant of pemphigus vulgaris representing about 1-2% of all pemphigus. It may be correlated with <em>Kardama visarpa</em> in Ayurveda. The contemporary management of pemphigus is by systemic steroids. This case report of a 38 year old, male patient diagnosed with Pemphigus vegetans who presented with pustular lesions with foul smell, reddish spots with hypertrophic papillated lesions on scalp, itching and burning sensation over various body parts especially on upper parts since 20 years. He was treated with both <em>Samana</em> as well as <em>Sodhana</em> therapies for about 1 month. This condition was assessed using Pemphigus diseases area index. After treatment there was a significant reduction in the score. Moreover no new lesions were formed suggesting non progression of the diseases.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Ayurveda Upachara on Amavata 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Shashi Rekha V <p>This study delves into the positive impact of a 15-day <em>Snehapana</em> treatment on a patient, revealing significant relief from pain, reduced joint stiffness, and overall improvement. The subsequent follow-up assessment demonstrates the complete elimination of pain, swelling, sensitivity, and hardness. The success underscores the pivotal role of addressing <em>Agni</em> impairment, <em>Ama</em> formation, and <em>Vata dosha</em> vitiation in effectively managing <em>Amavata</em>. The sequential approach, encompassing the transformation of <em>Ama</em> into <em>Niramaavasta</em>, coupled with <em>Virechan</em> and <em>Snehana</em> treatments, proved to be successful. Notably, <em>Snehana</em> emerged as a crucial element, playing a key role in eliminating <em>Ama</em>-related issues, calming <em>Vata</em>, and clearing impurities. These findings provide valuable insights into a comprehensive and successful strategy for <em>Amavata</em> management, emphasizing the importance of a tailored treatment plan targeting the root causes of the condition.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Understanding to Concept of Jarajanya Vyadhi (ageing related diseases) w.s.r. to Sandhigatavata (osteo arthritis) 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Nimesh Kachhiapatel Shivaranjani J Kantharia Manish Patel Kalapi Patel <p>As age advances <em>Vata Dosha</em> increases in an individual. This increasing <em>Vata</em> trigger and accelerates <em>Dhatu Kshaya</em> (depletion of tissues) and <em>Bala Kshaya</em> (diminished the body strength). Hence advancing age makes man prone to many diseases especially degenerative disorders. <em>Asthis</em> (bones) are the main seat of <em>Vata Dosha</em> and <em>Sandhis</em> (joints) is the main seat of <em>Kapha Dosha</em>. <em>Vata Dosha</em> is responsible for different body movements like <em>Prasaarana</em> and <em>Akunchana</em> of <em>Sandhi</em> (flexion and extension of joints), whereas <em>Shleshaka Kapha</em> located in <em>Sandhi</em> (joints) is provides nutrition, protection and to minimize the friction during the movement. <em>Sandhigatavata</em> is <em>Vata pradhana vyadhi</em>. It is quite similar to osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease stand in modern medical science. <em>Sandhigatavata</em> is <em>Vata</em> dominating disorder which result in inflammatory and degenerative changes in joints. Osteoarthritis is a disease of musculoskeletal system, affecting the joints mostly in elderly population and in weight bearing joints (particularly knee joint). The current standard modern medical pharmacological management of osteoarthritis includes the administration of analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).&nbsp; However, their use neither provides adequate and significant relief in symptoms nor deceleration in disease process. Therefore, <em>Vata shamaka aushadhis</em> along with local application e.g. <em>Abhyanga,</em> different form of <em>Swedana</em> are beneficial. As <em>Sandhigatavata</em> is ageing related heath condition, <em>Rasayana chikitsa</em> can also be helpful in the management of <em>Sandhigatavata </em>(Osteoarthritis). This article enlighten the knowledge about <em>Jarajanya vyadhi</em> especially <em>Sandhigatavata</em>.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research An Antimicrobial Evaluation of Bhasmeshwara Rasa on Salmonella Typhi 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 J M Urvashiba BN Ashok Kumar A Ravindra V S Sushmitha P R R Geethesh <p>Infections can be caused by a wide range of pathogens and bacteria are one among them. Presently, we confront a significant challenge concerning antimicrobial resistance, leading the world to explore alternative medicine as a potential solution. <em>Bhasmeshwara rasa </em>is a formulation mentioned under <em>Sannipataja jwara chikitsa </em>in <em>Rasendra Chintamani</em> which acts on all three <em>Doshas</em>. It is a <em>Khalviya Rasayana</em> containing <em>Vanyopala bhasma</em> (cow dung cake <em>Bhasma</em>), <em>Maricha </em>and <em>Shuddha vatsanabha</em> and its <em>Anupana</em> is <em>Ardraka Swarasa.</em></p> <p>Even though there is no <em>Parada</em> used in this formulation, still this formulation is suffixed with “<em>Rasa</em>” in its name <em>Bhasmeshwara</em>. In vitro anti-bacterial study, the action of <em>Bhasmeshwara rasa</em> was tested against <em>Salmonella typhi</em> by well diffusion method. A combination of <em>Bhasmeshwara Rasa</em> and <em>Ardraka Swarasa</em> showed antibacterial activity against <em>Salmonella typhi</em>. Hence, with the present study, it can be concluded that <em>Bhasmeshwara Rasa</em> and <em>Ardraka Swarasa</em> combination shows mild to moderate anti-bacterial activity.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Comparative Antibacterial Activity of Bharangyadi Yoga Variants w.s.r. to Salmonella Typhi 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 K Ami R R Geethesh A Ravindra B N Ashok Kumar V S Sushmitha <p><em>Salmonella typhi</em>, the causative organism of typhoid fever, remains a major global public health concern. Despite the availability of conventional antibiotics, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of <em>Salmonella typhi</em> poses a serious challenge in combating this infectious pathogen. As a result, the exploration of alternative therapeutic options, such as traditional herbal remedies, has gained prominence. <em>Bharangyadi Yoga</em> is a combination of specific herbal ingredients, used in traditional medicine system to address various types of fever and related ailments as mentioned in <em>Sahasrayogam</em>, has to be prepared and administered in the form of <em>Kashaya</em>. In vitro antibacterial activity of <em>Bharangyadi Kashaya</em> and <em>Bharangyadi Arka</em> was carried out by well diffusion method with different concentrations against <em>Salmonella</em> <em>typhi</em> and the area of inhibition of microbial growth is measured. Moderate zone of inhibition was observed in <em>Arka</em>, while no zone of inhibition was seen in any of the concentration of <em>Kashaya</em>. The antibacterial effectiveness of <em>Bharangyadi Arka</em> can be attributed to its volatile and other aqueous extract content, enhanced solubility and release of volatile active constituents. In this study, <em>Arka</em> is established to have better antibacterial activity compare to <em>Kashaya</em> as a new dosage form. However, Negative antibacterial result of <em>Kashaya</em> does not indicate lack of therapeutic effectiveness.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research An In Vitro Study on the Antimicrobial Effect of Fumigation with Jatu-Sarjarasadi Choorna 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Leema Joseph Nafeesth Beevi.A Jyothi.R <p>In the present scenario, shooting incidence of airborne diseases is a major public health challenge. Therefore, disinfecting our immediate surroundings is quite important. In Ayurveda, <em>Dhoopana</em> is a disinfection method by which drugs of herbal, herbo-mineral or animal origin are used for fumigation. It is a safe, natural and cost-effective method for disinfection. But the effectiveness of <em>Dhoopana</em> has to be proved scientifically for the acceptance of the modern society. Therefore, <em>Jatu-sarjarasadi dhoopa yoga</em> mentioned in <em>Ashtanga samgraha sutrasthana</em> is selected for the study to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. <em>Jatu, Sarjarasa, Ushira, Sarshapa, Patra, Valaka, Vella, Arushkara, Pura, Arjuna </em>are the ten ingredients of the <em>yoga</em>, among which <em>Arushkara</em> is replaced in this study with its <em>Abhava dravya Citraka</em> due to safety reasons. The study was conducted in the procedure room of Prasootitantra Department of Government Ayurveda College Hospital, Tripunithura. The room was fumigated for 30 minutes and kept enclosed for 24 hours. Total microbial colonies were estimated by settle plate method. Petridishes containing culture medium of bacteria and fungi were exposed for 60 minutes in the room before fumigation and 24 hours after fumigation. The sample plates were incubated and total microbial colonies before and after fumigation were counted. The data was statistically analysed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. On statistical analysis, the reduction in total colony count of bacteriae and fungi was found to be significant and showed profound anti-bacterial activity when compared to anti-fungal action. The study concluded that fumigation with <em>Jatu-sarjarasadi choorna</em> has anti-microbial effect.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Effect of Suryanamaskara, Selected Pranayama and Yava Saktu Modaka in Menopausal Symptoms 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Gautami Isasare Jyothi R Nafeesath Beevi <p>Menopause is the term for the natural and permanent cessation of monthly female reproductive cycles. Menopausal women are known to experience physical, psychological, and vasomotor symptoms. In Ayurveda, menopause is not mentioned separately or as a disease but it is considered as <em>Rajakshaya</em>, the transition period of body from predominance of <em>Pittadosha</em> to <em>Vatadosha</em>. <em>Rajonivritti</em> (menopause) occurring in <em>Jarapakva Shareer</em> (aged body) at the age of 50 years. In modern science, hormone therapy has been used to control the symptoms of menopause. But long term use of this therapy had an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, stroke, breast cancer etc. A lifestyle modification is therefore an essential component in reducing menopausal symptoms, which includes a healthy diet, physical exercise, stress reduction and weight management. In this study 25 subjects with menopausal symptoms between the age group of 45 to 55 years were selected, from OPD of Govt. Ayurveda College Hospital, Tripunithura, as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study subjects were advised to have two <em>Yava saktu modakas</em> of 10gm. each in morning at 7.30 a.m and the practice of <em>Suryanamaskara</em> and selected <em>Pranayamas</em> in the morning for 1 month. Assessment was done on 0<sup>th</sup>, 15<sup>th</sup> and 31<sup>st</sup> day of intervention. Along with this, the blood investigations like fasting blood sugar, post prandial blood sugar and serum cholesterol were assessed on 0<sup>th</sup> and 31<sup>st</sup> day of the study period. Results showed that <em>Suryanamaskara</em>, selected <em>Pranayama</em> and <em>Yava saktu modaka</em> have statistical significance in reducing menopausal symptoms.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research A Standardized Method for Extraction of Parada (Mercury) from Hingula (Cinnabar) with the help of Modified Nada-Yantra 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Karishma Varlani Sanjay Kumar Manisha Goyal Govind Sahay Shukla Rajaram Agarwal <p><strong>Background: </strong><em>Parada</em> (mercury) has both, miraculous therapeutics effects as well as mythical importance. Naturally obtained mercury contains so many impurities, so extraction of mercury from <em>Hingula</em> (cinnabar) is comparatively easy and cheaper method, also it is suitable for further preparation of formulations. In classics it is mentioned that it as beneficial as <em>Ashtasansakrita Parada</em> (mercury which has processed with eight procedures). About 18 methods found in classics to obtain mercury from <em>Hingula</em> such as <em>Urdhwapatana</em> (upward sublimation)<em>, Adhoptana</em> (downward sublimation)<em>, Tiryakapatana</em> (distillation). The <em>Urdhwapatana</em> method with the help of <em>Nada-Yantra</em> (pitcher instrument) is mentioned in classics but due to some lacunas mercury after dissociation get lost in form of fumes which causes less yield and researcher may have some hazardous effects because of toxicity of mercuric fumes. <strong>Objective:</strong> To develop a standardized method to extract <em>Parada</em> from <em>Hingula</em> through which maximum yield can be obtained and chances of harm and loss can be minimized. <strong>Material &amp; Method:</strong> In this pharmaceutical research work we tried to modify classical procedure of <em>Hingullotha Parada </em>through <em>Nada- yantra</em> and evaluated its SOP. <strong>Result:</strong> With this modified method, mercury containing fumes get reduced and gained better yield (76.8%). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>Hingullotha Parada </em>(collection of mercury from cinnabar) is considered as the best way to extract mercury, some small modifications in classical operating procedure can provide good yield as well as it is comparatively safer way.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Development of Analytical Profile of Ocimum sanctum L. leaves Powder prepared by Classical and Lyophilization method through Accelerated Stability Studies 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Nidhi Patel Bharti Umrethia <p>Shelf life means the time period during which the potency of a drug remains unaffected from environmental factors or microbial contamination. Nowadays diverse procedures of making powder are available which affect on shelf life of them. <em>Ocimum</em> <em>sanctum </em>L. is most common household herb in Indian subcontinent. Hence, the present study is aimed to develop analytical profile of <em>Ocimum</em> <em>sanctum</em> L. leaves powder by classical and lyophilized method and compare the stability of both the samples. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> <em>Ocimum</em> <em>sanctum</em> L. leaves powder was prepared by two different drying methods and accelerated stability study was conducted as per ICH guideline Q1A (R2). Physicochemical analysis was repeated at interval of 0, 1, 3 and 6 months. Organoleptic parameters, microbial limits and heavy-metal analysis were observed at specific intervals. <strong>Result and Discussion</strong>: No significant changes were observed in organoleptic characters of both the samples up to storage of 6 months at accelerated condition. The values of physicochemical parameters of both the samples were within the prescribed limit specified in Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India. Results of Microbiological limit test were also below the limit and considerably decreased at specific intervals. Heavy metals namely arsenic, cadmium and mercury were not detected and lead was present below detectable limits. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Analysis revealed that the classically prepared powder has better shelf life (3.08 years) than lyophilized powder (2.70 years) and also provides the modest and effective ways for optimal Eugenol extraction in accelerated conditions.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Role of Basti and Snehana Putapaka in the Management of Shushkaakshipaka with respect to Sjogren’s Syndrome 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Rutuja Mahendra Jadhav Nutan Radaye <p>Sjogren’s syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks the glands that make moisture in the eyes, mouth, and other parts of the body. The triad of Sjogren’s syndrome consists of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eye), xerostomia (dry mouth) and rheumatoid arthritis. From Ayurvedic perspective, the pathophysiology of Sjogren’s shows <em>Vata dosha dushti</em> leading to <em>Sandhigata vikara</em>, <em>Roukshya</em> and <em>Shushkaakshipaka</em>. <em>Shushkaakshipaka</em> is a <em>Vata-pittaja, Sarvagata netra vikara</em> that matches the clinical picture of dry eyes disease. To control this <em>Prakupit vata dosha; Sanshodhan</em> and <em>Shaman</em> both are required. As a result, <em>Vata shodhana</em> was achieved by <em>Basti upakram </em>and <em>Basti pashchat Snehana Putapaka, Nasya</em> and <em>Snehapana</em> brought about <em>Vata shamana</em>. Patient’s dryness of eyes was assessed using Schirmers test and Tear film Break up test. After treatment Schirmer’s reading showed significant improvement from 2mm to 10mm and from 4mm to 8mm in right and left eye respectively. Other symptoms of patient like dryness of mouth and joint pain also reduced to a certain amount. This case report shows a classical Ayurvedic treatment protocol used to treat Sjogren’s Syndrome.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research A Case Series on Importance of Rukshana Therapy in Spinal Pathology 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Nutan Mahato Sudarsana Kaveri R.N Shylamma T.M Bindu P.R <p>Spinal pathologies like cervical spondylosis and lumbar spondylosis have become very much prevalent due to lifestyle and environmental factors. Neck pain and low back pain is the leading cause of years lived with disabilities. Ayurveda always insisted on intervening at the early stage of every disease so that the progress of pathology can be prevented. To counteract these conditions, Ayurveda has put forth six-fold treatment methodologies called <em>Shadupakrama</em>. <em>Rukshana </em>is one among them which can be used as both <em>Bahiparimarjana</em> and <em>Antahparimarjana</em> <em>chikitsa</em>. With <em>Rukshana</em> therapy, the body’s oily, sticky, fatty constituents are dried up and reduced. In this case series, three cases related to spinal pathology, especially cervical and lumbar spondylosis were successfully treated by incorporating the principle of <em>Rukshana</em>. Initially, the condition was visualized as <em>Kaphavruta Vata/Vataanubandha Kapha</em>. Hence the first line of treatment should be <em>Kaphavatahara</em>.&nbsp; Apart from these there is the involvement of <em>Ama</em> in the <em>Samprapthi</em> and considering all these factors internally <em>Rukshana</em> was attained via oral medications and externally by<em> Rukshana upakrama</em>. After the <em>Rukshana</em> therapy patient shows marked improvement, assessments were recorded by comparing the grade of pain, joint tenderness, and range of motion before and after treatment. Notable changes are evidence that the Ayurvedic way of approach to treating spinal disorders is effective and successful. After <em>Rukshana karma</em>, <em>Snigdha bahya karma</em> was adopted along with some internal medications.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Efficacy of Virechana Karma along with Shamana Ausadha in Vipadika w.s.r to Palmar Psoriasis 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Arpita Nandi Chandrika Adhikary Asish Hazra Sukumar Ghosh <p>Healthy skin depicts a healthy life. The skin is the largest organ and also a protecive covering for more delicate and funcionally sophisticated internal vicera. The skin was appreciated primarily as a passive barrier to fluid loss and mechanical injury. Many interrelated factors affects both the appearence and health of the skin including nutrition, hygiene, circulation, age, immunity, genetic traits, psychological state and drugs. Skin conditions can affect anyone- young and old, men and women. Acne vulgaries, psoriasis, eczema, urticaria etc are just a few examples of common skin disorders. Treating skin diseases is like, fighting war and if the warriors want to win, it is necessary to accurately access the strength of the adversary. So accurate diagnosis, application of principle, understanding the <em>Avastha</em>, treatment based on <em>Avastha</em> are highly essential. <em>Vipadika</em> is one of the types of the <em>Kshudrakushta</em> in Ayurveda. Here a 57 years old male patient history of repeted exposure to a chemical substance in paddy field with complain of excessive dryness, pain and fissures in palms since 1 year, diagnosed as <em>Vipadika </em>(palmer psoriasis) was treated with <em>Sodhana (Virechana karma </em>with<em> Tivrit Avaleha)</em> as well as <em>Samana ausadhi</em> with <em>Trikatu churna, Mahatikta Ghrita, Khadiraarista, Panchatikta Ghrita guggul </em>and<em> Nimba taila </em>(local application) having marked improvement. The study showed that combination of Ayurvedic modalities gives significant result in <em>Lakshana</em>s (symptoms) like <em>Panisphutana </em>(fissures in palms), <em>Tivravedana </em>(severe local pain), <em>Daha </em>(burning sensation), <em>Kandu </em>(itching) in a span of about 1 month.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Treatment of Second-Degree Scald Burn with the Application of Madhuchistadi Ghrita 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Riddhi J Ganatra Tukaram Sambhaji Dudhamal <p>Burn is one of the common conditions affected by individuals in day-to-day activity which needs extra attention to prevent ugly scars and many more complications. Ayurveda has a wide range of herbal formulations to manage such types of burn wounds. Among them, one is <em>Madhuchistadi</em> <em>Ghrita </em>which has burn wound healing properties by its <em>Vrana</em> <em>Ropana</em> drugs. A 45-year-old male patient suffered second-degree scald burn along with blisters and burning over the right hand for four days. The patient was successfully treated with a local application of <em>Madhuchistadi</em> <em>Ghrita</em> twice daily for 15 days. After seven days of treatment, the wound was 70% covered with epithelialization and at the end of 15 days, the wound was completely healed. During the follow-up period of 1 month, the skin was completely remodeled with the presence of skin appendages. This is a single case report with a positive outcome on the treatment of second-degree scald burns with the application of <em>Madhuchistadi</em> <em>Ghrita</em>.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Ayurvedic Management of Visarpa w.s.r to Herpes Zoster 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Vijetha S Basavarajeshwari M B Rudrapuri G Vinay Mohan <p><em>Visarpa</em> is one of the major Skin disease which is widely explained in our Ayurvedic classics. The clinical features contemplates with Herpes Zoster which is an active transmitting Viral disease. This case reports shows the Successful treatment of <em>Visarpa. </em>Here presenting a case of 72 year, female with sudden onset of 2-3 Vesicles on an Erthyematous base over the chin and left half of the lower lip, along with dragging pain and burning sensation within 2 days. Gradually Vesicles started to appear over the left side of the face, left Ear, Tongue with increased number of Vesicles within 4-5days along with other symptoms persists. Clinically the patient was diagnosed as <em>Visarpa </em>(Herpes Zoster). As <em>Pitta Dosha </em>and<em> Raktha Dhathu</em> vitiation was noticed, managed by <em>Siravyadha </em>as<em> Shodhananga chikitsa </em>and the<em> Dravyas</em> with <em>Tiktha Rasa, Sheetha veerya</em> in nature. The patient showed improvement within 15days of Treatment. The detailed case is presented in the full paper.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Herbal Medicine: A Promising Approach for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease 2024-02-15T10:10:19+08:00 Thirupathirao Vishnumukkala Prarthana Kalerammana Gopalakrishna Saravanan Jagadeesan Samaila Musa Chiroma Nurul Huda Mohd Nor Mohamad Taufik Hidayat Baharuldin Warren Thomas Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas <p>Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease manifesting in cognitive decline, impairment of memory, and behavioural deterioration. Alzheimer’s is a relatively common type of dementia. The pathological basis for the progression of Alzheimer's disease is beta-amyloid protein accumulation, phosphorylation of tau protein, abnormal glial cell function, inflammation, neurotransmitter imbalance, along with oxidative stress in brain tissue. Current available therapies are targeted at amelioration of symptoms alone and focus on a limited spectrum of pathophysiological processes. It is evident that it is essential to develop a multi-target therapeutic option in managing Alzheimer's disease, in view of the broad range of factors in disease progression and sever consequences for sufferers. Herbal medicines are seen as a potential resource in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, in view of their historical use in traditional medicine as neuroprotectants. Herbal medicines have been evaluated in animal studies designed to determine their capacity to prevent neurodegenerative disease and ameliorate memory defects. This review elaborates on the studies conducted on several medicinal plants that have been investigated for their potential in the prevention and treatment of memory defects in animal models.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Need-Based Apatarpana (Depleting) and Santarpana (Nourishing) Interventions in Managing Prameha with special reference to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Gajanana Hegde Neelakanta J Sajjanar <p>Prameha is a disease with different pathological conditions as per Ayurveda, comparable to Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. The main line of therapeutic intervention for Prameha, a disease due to over-nourishment, is Apatarpana (depleting regimens of Ayurveda to reduce the bulk of body tissues, particularly Meda and Mamsa dhatu in the present context). As a general principle of Ayurveda diagnosis, a disease is dynamic and changes its status and presentation with time, diet, and interventions. Complementing this, each therapeutic intervention is defined with deficit, optimum, and excess use features. Administering the intervention less than or beyond the requirement may harm the individual, resulting in hampered structure and/or function of other body components. In the present review, we have attempted to put forth this principle of need-based Apatarpana and Santarpana (bulk/strength promoting therapies of Ayurveda) interventions, in managing Prameha with special reference to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Ayurvedic Insights into Re-Emerging Human Brucellosis 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Krishna G S L Mahadevan Kasthuri Nair A Arun Pratap <p>Brucellosis is a bacterial infection caused by <em>Brucella melintensis.</em> It is one of the most widespread endemic zoonotic diseases present globally, more prevalent in developing countries. It is transmitted to humans either through direct contact with infected animal tissues or fluids or indirectly by ingesting contaminated meat and unpasteurized dairy products. The route of transmission includes mainly mucocutaneous. Farmers, butchers, hunters, and veterinarians are mainly at higher risk of contracting this condition. Mostly the affected individuals exhibit flu-like symptoms, remittent fever, malaise, arthralgia, and weight loss which lasts from a few days to several years. The condition is often misdiagnosed due to nonspecific clinical symptoms, leading to inadequate treatment and prolonged illness leading to severe complications like endocarditis. Currently, there is no vaccine for human brucellosis. The modern management includes administration of antibiotics. The gold standard diagnostic tool is direct bacteriological testing. Ayurvedic understanding of endemic diseases highlights the unique concept of <em>Janapathhodhwamsa</em> proposed by <em>Acharyas. </em>They considered <em>Vayu, Jala, Kala,</em> and <em>Desa</em> as common factors in manifestation of disease. Any alteration in these factors can be understood as imbalance and disease outbreak emerged due to urbanization, lack of hygienic measures in animal husbandry, etc. remaining a public health hazard. Brucellosis is known by its undulant nature which closely resembles the <em>Vishama Jwara</em> in classics which is a <em>Sannipatika</em> type of <em>Jwara</em>. <em>Amapachana, Shodhana,</em> and <em>Samana</em> line of management followed by <em>Rasayana, Satvritta Palana</em> as a preventive line can be adopted to manage Brucellosis.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Unveiling the Historical and Literary Aspects of Rajavrat: An In-Depth Overview 2024-02-15T10:10:20+08:00 Gunjan Thapliyal Shuchi Mitra Usha Sharma Khem Chand Sharma <p><em>Rajavrat</em> known as Lapis lazuli stone is one of the semiprecious stone in Indian alchemy placed under <em>Upratna Varg</em>. Lapis lazuli stone is made up of Metamorphic Rock and chemically it is mixture of minerals (Na S<sub>3</sub>-Al) Al<sub>2</sub> (SiO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3 </sub>with lazurite. It is royal blue in colour and used since century for ornaments, beads and making of decorative items. The ‘blue pigment’ known as ultramarine is extracted from it and used in paintings and colouring agent since middle age. It is one of the most spiritually used stone worldwide and used therapeutically in different system of medicines.&nbsp; In Ayurveda it is mentioned in most of the <em>Rasagranthas </em>and therapeutically given in various ailments mainly in diabetes, alcoholism, and urinary disorders. Its identification, different purification methods, therapeutic uses are described in various texts. An attempt has been made to compile and provide information regarding its historical presence, mineralogical identification, physico-chemical properties and therapeutic uses in different system of medicine.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research