International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research <div align="justify"> <p class="para1"><strong>International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research (IJAPR)</strong>&nbsp;is an international peer reviewed Monthly open access Online and Print journal. The aim of the journal is to increase the impact of research in both academic and industry, with strong emphasis on quality and originality. The journal promotes to publish the articles in the field of&nbsp;<strong>Ayurveda, Siddha, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Homeopathy and Allopathy</strong>&nbsp;systems of medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Researchers may submit (1). Original Research Articles (2). Review articles (3). Book Reviews (4). Short Communications/ Research Letter (5). Case Report (6). Letter to the Editor/Correspondence.</p> </div> International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research en-US International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research 2322-0902 A Comparative Clinical Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Guduchyadi Kashaya and Rajrukshadipachana Kashaya in the Management of Eka Kushta w.s.r to Psoriasis <p>In <em>Ayurveda</em>, all skin diseases have been described under the umbrella of <em>Kushtha.</em> <em>Ekakusta </em>is considered as the most commonest skin disease that can affect an individual. <em>Acharya Charak</em> has described the involvement of <em>Vata-Kapha</em> in <em>Eka Kushtha</em>. In the present study <em>Eka kushtha</em> is compared with psoriasis due to resemblance of signs symptoms and causative factors with it. Psoriasis is a papulosquamous disorder of the skin, characterized by sharply defined erythematosquamous lesions this illness exhibits a prompt response if treated carefully, left it may run a very chronic course extending into larger area of the body.</p> <p><em>Ayurveda</em> focuses more on curative management than palliative management. The drug used in the treatment of <em>Ayurveda </em>does not have complications like modern treatment. Repeated <em>Sodhana</em> prevent the recurrence of the disease. Similarly various preparations have been advocated for the management of Psoriasis.</p> <p>The drugs used in this study are <em>Guduchyadi Kashaya</em> &amp; <em>Rajrukshadi Pachana Kashaya</em>. Both the <em>Kashayas</em> are said to be effective in skin diseases. As per <em>Yogaratnakara,</em> <em>Guduchyadhi Kwath</em> has been mentioned as one of the drug having curative effect on all types of <em>Kustha</em>. Hence for present study the orally <em>Guduchyadi Kwath</em> is taken for <em>EkaKustha </em>treatment. The drugs in<em> Guduchyadi Kwatha </em>are <em>Kusthaghana, Twachya, Swedal, Tridosh shamaka,</em> as well as with <em>Rasayan</em> properties, which is beneficial to break down the pathogenesis of disease. As per <em>Gadanigraha,</em> as mentioned in <em>Kayachikitsakhanda, Rajvrukshadipachana Kashaya</em> is mentioned for the treatment of <em>Ekakushtha</em>. Ingredients in <em>Rajvrukshadi Pachana Kashaya</em> reduce <em>Kapha dosha</em> and most of them act on the skin. <em>Kwatha</em> <em>dravyas</em> are<em> Rasadushtihara</em>, <em>Kaphapittahara, Deepana, Twachya, and also </em>having antibacterial, antimicrobial, antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory properties, Hence, it is helpful for clearing the skin infections.</p> Moulika Markonda Sowmya S.B Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research 2021-10-07 2021-10-07 1 9 10.47070/ijapr.v9iSuppl1.2090 A Comparative Clinical Study of Trikarshika Kwatha with and without Lifestyle Modification in the Management of Vatarakta with Special Reference to Hyperuricaemia <p>Nowadays, people are more vulnerable to metabolic disorders due to their faulty dietary and behavioural habits. One such disorder is <em>Vatarakta</em> which causes functional impairment due to involvement of <em>Sandhi</em> (joints). It is manifested by <em>Ruk</em>, <em>Toda</em>, <em>Sparsha asahatva</em>, <em>Shopha</em>, <em>Raga</em>, <em>Daha</em> and <em>Stabdhata</em> in <em>Sandhi</em>. <em>Vatarakta</em> can be correlated with Hyperuricaemia or Gout due to similarity in their clinical features. Hyperuricaemia is defined as abnormally high level of uric acid in blood (i.e. &gt;6mg/dl in female and &gt;7mg/dl in male). On the other hand, Gout is an inflammatory response to monosodium urate crystals formed secondary to hyperuricaemia. <strong>Aims and objectives:</strong> 1. To evaluate the effectiveness of <em>Trikarshika kwatha</em> and lifestyle modification in the management of <em>Vatarakta</em>. 2. To compare the effects of <em>Trikarshika kwatha</em> with and without lifestyle modification in the management of <em>Vatarakta</em>. <strong>Materials and methods:</strong> Raw herbs of the research formulation were collected after proper identification and <em>Kwatha</em> was prepared for oral administration. For the clinical study, total 60 patients were selected on the basis of selection criteria. Selected patients were randomly divided into two groups. <strong>(i) Group A:</strong> 30 patients were treated with <em>Trikarshika kwatha</em>. <strong>(ii) Group B:</strong> 30 patients were treated with <em>Trikarshika kwatha</em> along with Lifestyle modification. Individual patient was treated for 45 days along with follow up at the interval of every 15 days. To assess the effectiveness of treatment, scoring pattern was followed for subjective and objective parameters. They were assessed before and after treatment. The collected data were analysed statistically by using Paired t-test. <strong>Results:</strong> On the basis of all statistical data, it can be said that patients of Group B showed better results in all parameters in comparison to patients of Group A. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Both <em>Trikarshika kwatha</em> and Lifestyle modification are affective but <em>Trikarshika kwatha</em> with Lifestyle modification is more effective than <em>Trikarshika kwatha</em> without Lifestyle modification in the management of <em>Vatarakta</em>.</p> Md Tanzil Ansari Sukumar Ghosh Shailendra Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 10 19 10.47070/ijapr.v9iSuppl1.2106 A Comparative Clinical Study of Khanda Shunthi and Prasarni Avleha in the Management of Amavata with Special Reference to Rheumatoid Arthritis <p><strong>Background</strong>: <em>Amavata</em> is the most common form of inflammatory arthopathy seen in India. Among adult population below the age of 50 years this is the most common form of arthritis. For the present study, on <em>Amavata </em>as shaman therapy, <em>Khanda Shunthi</em> and <em>Prasarni Avleha</em> the <em>Ushnaveeryadravya </em>medicaments were chosen.</p> <p><strong>Aims &amp; Objective:</strong> The present research work aimed at to evaluate efficacy and establish safe use of <em>Khanda Shunthi</em> and <em>Prasarni Aavaleha</em> in <em>Amavata</em>.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods:</strong> 40 subjects of <em>Amavata </em>fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected from OPD and IPD of Desh Bhagat Ayurvedic Hospital, Mandi Gobindgarh, Punjab and randomly divided into two groups, group A and B, comprising each of 20 patients. Group-A subjects received <em>Khanda Shunthi </em>for 60 days, Group-B subjects received <em>Prasarni Avaleha </em>for 60 days. Assessments were done on 0<sup>th</sup> and 60<sup>th </sup>day of treatment.</p> <p><strong>Results and Conclusions:</strong> In both the groups, highly significant results were observed in all the cardinal parameters with P value for fever and Hb are greater than 0.05 hence there is no significant difference in effect of Group A and Group B on fever and Hb. P values for all other symptoms are less than 0.05 hence we conclude that there is significant difference in effect of group A and group B on pain, swelling, stiffness, fever, ESR, walking time and grip strength. On comparison group A treatment is more effective than group B for all assessment criteria.</p> Anu Gupta Kalpana Patni Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 20 26 10.47070/ijapr.v9iSuppl1.2026 A Comparative Clinical Study on Vamana and Virechana Karma in the Management of Ekakushtha with Special Reference to Psoriasis <p><em>Ekakushtha</em> is one of the <em>Kshudra Kushtha</em> described in Ayurvedic classics. It predominantly involves <em>Vata</em> and <em>Kapha</em> <em>Dosha</em> and characterized by <em>Asvedanam</em> (Anhidrosis), <em>Mahavastu </em>(large area of involvement), <em>Matsyashakalopamam </em>(scaling), <em>Krishna Aruna Varna</em> (black or reddish brown skin lesion), <em>Kandu</em> (itching) and <em>Rukshata</em> (dryness). In modern science it can be co-related with Psoriasis. According to W.H.O. the world wide prevalence of Psoriasis is 2-3% (April, 2013). In India prevalence of Psoriasis varies from 0.44 to 2.88%.<em> Acharya Charaka</em> mentioned that treatment of <em>Ekakushtha</em> is to be carried out according to involvement of excessive <em>Dosha</em>. It is <em>Bahudosha </em>(excessively aggravated <em>Dosha</em>) and <em>Chirkari </em>(chronic)<em> Vyadhi </em>(disease)<em>. </em>In this condition<em> Shodhana</em> <em>Chikitsa </em>(purificatory measures) is best. So in this present study <em>Vamana Karma</em> and <em>Virechana Karma </em>is chosen for the treatment of <em>Ekakushtha.</em> Here 60 cases of <em>Ekakushtha</em> (Psoriasis) were divided into two groups. Group A (30 patients) were subjected to <em>Vamana Karma. </em>Group B (30 patients) were subjected to <em>Virechana Karma</em>. The statistical analysis reveals that <em>Vamana Karma </em>is statistically more significant in the management of <em>Ekakushtha</em>. Here both the therapies i.e. <em>Vamana Karma </em>and <em>Virechana Karma</em> were effective in the treatment of <em>Ekakushtha</em>. But <em>Vamana Karma</em> was more effective than <em>Virechana Karma</em>.</p> MD Haidar Sukumar Ghosh Supriya Bhattacharya Asish Kumar Das Rajarshi Chaudhuri Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 27 35 10.47070/ijapr.v9iSuppl1.2109 A Comparative Clinical Evaluation on the Efficacy of Kuberaksha & Yava with Lifestyle Modification, in The Management of Prameha with Special Reference to Prediabetes <p>We are living in the age of complexity, contradiction, and challenge relating to various health issues such as lifestyle disorder, ageing, mental health euthanasia, drug resistance and so on. Diabetes Mellitus is a Giant disease and major health issue that has reached alarming level in spite of terrific advance in modern medical science. Prediabetes is the precursor stage before Diabetes Mellitus, in which not all of the symptoms required to diagnose diabetes are present, but blood sugar is abnormally high. Prediabetic persons are considered to be at increased risk for the subsequent development Diabetes Mellitus. Sushruta Samhita mentioned, all varieties of <em>Prameha</em> if not treated at appropriate time, become changed to <em>Madhumeha</em> which is incurable. So, early detection, treatment and prevention of this disease in Prediabetic stage is needed. The modification of lifestyle should be the first aim and objectives to restrict or combat such problems, beside this prime objective, some medication which is safe and efficacious to be introduced. So, a clinical study with 60 patients has been conducted on Prediabetes through the management with <em>‘Kuberaksha’</em> and<em> ‘Yava’</em> in such 2 groups of treatment. The two drugs are carrying such properties which acts in <em>Samprapti vighatana</em> (prevent pathogenesis) of the disease. In both cases statistically significant results are found (P&lt;0.001 &amp; &lt;0.01). On comparison between two groups <em>Kuberaksha</em> powder showed better result than <em>Yava</em> powder.</p> Trisha Talapatra Sukumar Ghosh Rina Ghosh Shailendra Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 36 45 10.47070/ijapr.v9iSuppl1.2110 Literature Review on Siddha Medicine for the Management of Neerkana Maantham with Utthamani Kudineer- A Drug Review <p>Siddha medicine is an ancient and traditional system of medicine.. When the three humors (<em>Vatham</em>, <em>Pitham</em>, <em>Kabam</em>) are in proper balance then the person experiences good health; any imbalance of three humors leads to disease. Acute Nasopharyngitis defines an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the naso pharynx. It is characterized by rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, sneezing, malaise, fever, headache, &amp; myalgia. It may be correlated with <em>Neerkana</em> <em>maantham</em>, one of the 31 types of <em>Maantham</em> in children mentioned in Siddha literature <em>Balavagadam</em>. The symptoms of <em>Neerkana mantham</em> can be managed by Siddha herbal formulation <em>Utthamani kudineer</em>. The main ingredients of the <em>Utthamani</em> <em>kudineer</em> are <em>Chukku</em>, <em>Milagu</em>, <em>Thippili</em>, <em>Omam</em>, <em>Sutta</em> <em>Vasambu</em>, <em>Utthamani</em> leaf, <em>Velai</em> <em>ver</em>, <em>Nochi</em> <em>thulir</em>, <em>Murungai</em> <em>eerku</em>, <em>Nuna</em> <em>eerku.</em> The ingredients of this formulation possess anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti microbial, antipyretic activities. All the ingredients of trial drug are purely herbals only. It is easily prepared, palatable, assimilates quickly and also safe for pediatric usage in the treatment of <em>Neerkana</em> <em>maantham</em>. Hence, this article gives an insight on the efficacy of <em>Utthamani kudineer</em> for <em>Neerkana maantham</em> (Acute Nasopharyngitis) based on review of various literatures and scientific studies. This review further focuses to improve the research on Siddha herbal medicines.</p> Santhi.S Amala Hazel.A.M Meenakshi Sundaram.M Meenakumari.R Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 46 52 10.47070/ijapr.v9iSuppl1.2122 Efficacy of Haridradwayadi Rasakriyanjana in Shushkakshipaka w.s.r to Dry Eye Syndrome- A Case Report <p>Tear secretion is an integral component of the ocular surface physiology; when compromised (quantitatively or qualitatively) lead to&nbsp;Dry eye syndrome with several ocular symptoms and ultimately the patient may end up in corneal blindness. The symptoms of Dry eye syndrome are similar to the disease <em>Shushkakshipaka (</em>ocular surface inflammatory syndrome<em>)</em><em>&nbsp;</em>in Ayurveda. <em>Vata</em> &amp; <em>Pitta </em>vitiation as per Ayurveda viewpoint are the major contributing pathological factors in its manifestation. Although a number of researches have been carried out and are still continuing, no curative treatment has been achieved yet. This paper aims to establish the efficacy of <em>Haridradwayadi Rasakriyanjana</em> during the clinical observation of a 55 years old female subject who was diagnosed with <em>Shushkakshipaka.</em> She was administered with the drug <em>Haridradwayadi Ghrita </em>in the form of <em>Rasakriyanjana </em>(semi-solid collyrium) drops topically for 30 days, by using subjective and objective assessment criteria which showed a significant result. After the treatment, majority of the symptoms reduced considerably and during the follow up concluded that there was no aggravation of the same.</p> Swathi A C Naveen B S Geetha Kumari Ajoy Viswam Krishnan Namboodiri Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 53 57 10.47070/ijapr.v9iSuppl1.2046 Rasanirdharana (Assessment of Taste) of an Extra Pharmacopoeial Drug - Cissus Latifolia Lam. <p>Ayurveda literatures include the descriptions of many drugs in terms of their names, properties and therapeutic usage. But there are many drugs, despite their medicinal value and wide usage among ethnic groups, left unrecorded in the classical texts. These drugs are generally termed as <em>Anukta dravya</em>. Action of <em>Anukta dravya</em> can be explained with its <em>rasapanchaka</em> viz. <em>Rasa</em>&nbsp;(taste), <em>Guna</em>&nbsp;(quality), <em>Veerya</em>&nbsp;(potency), <em>Vipaka</em> (transformation) and <em>Prabhava</em>&nbsp;(special action). Among these attributes of a drug, <em>Rasa</em> is the only parameter which can be assessed by direct perception. <em>Cissus latifolia</em> Lam. is an extra-pharmacopoeial drug with several ethnomedicinal claims. So the <em>Rasa</em> analysis of <em>Cissus latifolia</em> Lam. was done in 30 volunteers using a structured questionnaire. On analysing the data, it was found to have <em>Kashaya rasa</em> (astringent) <em>and Tikta anurasa</em> (bitter).</p> Sreebala G Jollykutty Eapen M S Deepa Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 58 62 10.47070/ijapr.v9iSuppl1.2061 An Ayurveda Approach in the Management of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy - A Case Study <p>Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSC) is one among the retinal disorder and a condition having high recurrence rate relatively; etiology and pathogenesis of which remains indeterminate. The effects on the retina are usually self-limited, although some people are left with permanent vision loss due to progressive and irreversible photoreceptor damage or retinal pigment epithelium atrophy. There have been a number of interventions used in CSC, including laser treatment, photodynamic therapy (PDT), intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, and sub threshold lasers. In <em>Ayurveda</em> the signs and symptoms of this can be considered under 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup><em> Patalagata Timira </em>which described under<em> Dristi gata Roga </em>in all classics of Ayurveda<em>. </em>Pathogenesis suggests involvement of <em>Pitta </em>and<em> Kapha dosha </em>mainly. Therefore a treatment attempt was planned in the lines of <em>Pitta Kapha </em><em>shamana</em>. After the treatment the quality of vision had been showed significant improvement. Foveal thickness and macular volume in OCT findings also showed significant reduction. The present paper discusses a case study of CSC and its Ayurveda Treatment.</p> Meera Panigrahi Naveen B S Ajoy Viswam Krishnan Namboodiri G Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 63 66 10.47070/ijapr.v9iSuppl1.2048 Ayurvedic Management of Congenital Elongation of Cervix- A Single Case Study <p>Elongation is one among the various congenital abnormalities of cervix, which is often one of the causes of primary infertility. The only available treatment is cervical amputation. The word yoni collectively refers to reproductive organs, however here it can be considered as the cervix. So elongated cervix can be correlated to <em>Prasramsini Yoni Vyapat</em> where there is laxity and descend of the cervix. All Acharyas have mentioned similar mode of treatment in case of <em>Srasta Yoni </em>which include <em>Abhyanga, Sweda, Veshavara Bandha, Uttarabasti</em> etc. A case report of patient presenting with congenital cervical elongation is being discussed here. In this case there was reduction in the elongation of the cervix by <em>Veshavara Bandha</em> and <em>Uttarabasti</em> with <em>Jathyadi Taila</em>. The drugs used in <em>Veshavara Bandha</em> were having <em>Balya, Brimhana </em>and <em>Grahi</em> properties which helped in reducing the length of the cervix significantly and preventing further elongation. Thus Ayurvedic management was found to be effective in elongation of cervix to an extent even though it cannot be cured completely.</p> Manasi P S Sathish Jalihal Kavitha B K Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 67 69 10.47070/ijapr.v9iSuppl1.2124 A Case Study on Effective Management of Abhayantra Arsha by Kshara Karma <p><em>Arshas</em> being the most common grievous ailment and one of the eight most intractable disorders (<em>Ashta Mahagada</em>) explicited by <em>Acharya Susruta</em> &amp; <em>Vagbhata</em>. Haemorrhoids are the dilatation of the anal and perianal venous plexus. The disturbance of <em>Jatharagni</em> is the most accepted cause of ano rectal problems<em>,</em> which further contributes to constipation. Constipation increases the back pressure into the haemorrhoidal veins to produce piles. <em>Arsha </em>requires a surgical technique in modern treatment, such as haemorrhoidectomy, rubber band ligation, and so on. <em>Kshara</em> is a caustic chemical, alkaline in nature, derived from medicinal plant ashes. The effect of <em>Kshara karma</em> is highly commended, it can replace the <em>Shastra</em> <em>karma</em> as it does the functions of <em>Chedana, Bhedana, Lekhana</em> <em>karmas</em> without using <em>Shastras.</em> <em>Kshara karma</em> can be utilised efficiently in individuals who are afraid of surgery as a complement for surgical operations. A 48years-old male patient presented with complaints of some mass coming out during defecation and bleeding while passing stool to the anorectal unit, OPD, National Institute of Ayurveda, deemed to be university Jaipur Rajasthan. The patient was treated successfully with <em>Kshara karma</em> application. The pile mass and per rectal haemorrhage was gone in 8 days and the patient was free of all symptoms within 18-20 days. The findings revealed that there are maximum advantages which are shared in this case study.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Priyadeep Raj Indrabir Mishra B.Swapna P Hemantha Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 70 72 10.47070/ijapr.v9iSuppl1.2057