International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research <div align="justify"> <p class="para1"><strong>International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research (IJAPR)</strong>&nbsp;is an international peer reviewed Monthly open access Online and Print journal. The aim of the journal is to increase the impact of research in both academic and industry, with strong emphasis on quality and originality. The journal promotes to publish the articles in the field of&nbsp;<strong>Ayurveda, Siddha, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Homeopathy and Allopathy</strong>&nbsp;systems of medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Researchers may submit (1). Original Research Articles (2). Review articles (3). Book Reviews (4). Short Communications/ Research Letter (5). Case Report (6). Letter to the Editor/Correspondence.</p> </div> en-US (Dr B Srinivasulu M.D (Ayu.)) (V Sowmya) Sun, 12 Jul 2020 17:33:08 +0800 OJS 60 EVALUATE THE EFFICACY OF SHASHTIK-SHALI PINDA SWEDA AND ABHYANGA IN MANAGEMENT OF PAKSHAGHATA ALONG WITH VIRECHANA W.S.R. TO HEMIPLEGIA <p>Body is assembled by <em>Vata Pitta </em>and <em>Kapha Dosha </em>each assigned to do its <em>Kshaya, Poshana and Dharana Karma. Vata</em> dominates both because of its <em>Yogavahi Guna.</em> <em>Pakshaghata </em>is one of the grievous <em>Vata Vyadhi</em> in Ayurveda. <em>Sansarga</em> of other <em>Dosha</em> and <em>Dhatu </em>leads to involvement of <em>Shodhana</em> and <em>Shaman Chikitsa</em>. <em>Snehana</em> therapy, <em>Bahya</em> and <em>Abhyantar</em> are well known for its treatment in <em>Vata Vyadhi. </em>Inclination towards modernization and deviation from basic healthy life make the body vulnerable for disease especially <em>Vata Vyadhi</em>. We know <em>Vata Vyadhi</em> are fulminate in nature but early diagnosis with the help of investigation tools like CT scan, MRI etc; we can prevent from further damage caused by previous pathology. <em>Sansarga</em> of other <em>Dosha</em> and <em>Dhatu </em>leads to involvement of <em>Shodhana</em> and <em>Shaman Chikitsa</em>. In terms of treatment <em>Virechana</em> had been mentioned as <em>Shodhana Chikitsa</em> in our <em>Samhita</em>.</p> <p>Here an attempt was made to apply <em>Virechana </em>treatment with two different <em>Poorva karma</em> and to evaluate the efficacy with an applied aspect. The study had been conducted on 30 patients of <em>Pakshaghata </em>(Hemiplegia) who were divided in two groups and were given below treatments nearly for 1 month. Group A: <em>Virechana</em> followed by <em>Shashtik-Shali Pindasweda.</em> Group B: <em>Virechana </em>followed by <em>Abhyanga</em>. It was observed that both groups are effective in <em>Ruja, Gauravta</em> and <em>Cheshtanivriti</em> in the management of <em>Pakshaghata </em>(Hemiplegia) but Group A is more effective in comparison to Group B.</p> Nisha Singh, Sriyash Dubey Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Sun, 12 Jul 2020 01:50:34 +0800 TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY OF GUDUCHYADI YOGA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF RAKTACHAPADHIKYATA OR ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION-A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL <p>Hypertension is the most pressing public health challenges. It is estimated that approximately 1 billion people are suffering from high blood pressure and the numbers are to increase to 2.5 billion by 2025. <em>Raktachaapadhikya</em> is the coined term for increased blood pressure given by recent authors where it can be understood as the pathology of <em>Vyanvayu</em>. The usage of <em>Guduchyadi Yoga </em>has been highlighted in the classics of Ayurveda for targeting the <em>Hridaya sthitha vayu</em>, which has not been evaluated yet. <strong>Aim:</strong> To evaluate and compare the efficacy of <em>Navahridaya Kalpa </em>(standard drug) and <em>Guduchyadi Yoga </em>(trial drug) for management of essential hypertension. <strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: A simple randomized controlled clinical study where 40 patients were equally divided as group A: <em>Navahridaya kalpa </em>(standard drug) and Group B: <em>Guduchyadi yoga</em> (trial drug) for a period of one month. <strong>Observations and results</strong>: The study result revealed that both the groups were beneficial in reducing high blood pressure however with no statistically significant difference found between the groups with p value being 0.339 for standard drug and 0.363 for trial drug. The group B was also found to be effective in reducing systolic blood pressure of stage I hypertension with p value .044 on comparing between the groups. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The <em>Guduchyadi yoga </em>acts as <em>Rasayana</em> with the property of rejuvenation and antihypertensive which will check the high blood pressure at a very minimum cost without having any major adverse effects in the patients and hence can be advocated for use on a daily a basis.</p> Nitish Pathania, Umesh C, Gopala Krishna G, Monika Pathania Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Sun, 12 Jul 2020 02:12:26 +0800 QUALITY CHARACTERIZATION OF MADHUYASHTI GHRITA <p><em>Madhuyashti Ghrita</em>, is an Ayurvedic medicated ghee preparation containing <em>Yashtimadhu</em>. It is used for treating external ulcers and wounds in vital points of the body. However, there is no quality monograph available for <em>Madhuyashti Ghrita</em>. Hence, the present work was carried out to characterize this <em>Ghrita</em> to confirm its identity, quality and purity. This work reported various pharmacognostic and physicochemical parameters of <em>Madhuyashti Ghrita</em> along with its TLC based rapid fingerprinting as per the present standards of Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Moreover, the presence of toxic contaminants like heavy metals, and microbial load were also evaluated. In organoleptic evaluation, the <em>Ghrita</em> was found to be semi–solid and dark yellow in colour, sweet and bitter in taste with a characteristic and pleasant odour. The values of the physicochemical parameters such as acid value, saponification value, peroxide value, refractive index, rancidity and pH value of the <em>Ghrita</em> were also assed. In the microscopical analysis of the rhizomes of <em>Yashtimadhu</em>, the presence of pitted vessels, fibres, prismatic crystals and starch grains were noted as a confirmation characteristic for the genuinely of this raw material in <em>Madhuyashti Ghrita</em><em>. </em>The amount of heavy metals such arsenic, lead, mercury, cadmium, nickel, zinc, copper and chromium as well as total bacterial count and total fungal count were found to be much below their API limits. The TLC showed different characteristic spots indicating the presence of <em>Yashtimadhu</em> in this product. The parameters of <em>Madhuyashti Ghrita</em> presented in this paper may be utilized for preparing a quality monograph for this product.</p> Meda Mruthyumjaya Rao, P. Hemant Kumar, Purnendu Panda, Sangeeta Mukhi, Anindya Bose Copyright (c) Sat, 11 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0800 ANTI ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF HERBO MINERAL SIDDHA PREPARATION ARUMUGA CHENDURAM AGAINST TYPE II COLLAGEN INDUCED ARTHRITIS IN EXPERIMENTAL RATS <p><em>Siddha </em>system of medicine is the eternal science of life. It is a system that has its extensive bonding with Dravidian culture, language and beliefs. The system of medicine mostly prevailed and prospered in the regions of Dravidian cultures by the great Siddhars. It’s unique as one only than other AYUSH traditional systems of medicine across India with its distinctive abundant usage of medicinal plants, metals, minerals and animal products. Siddhars used the steps of Alchemy to prepare various medicines from metallic and mineral origin for attainment elixir and various rare diseases. Siddha medicine is classified into 32 types of internal and external medicine each. Among the 32 types of internal medicine <em>Chendhuram</em> is a medicine shelf life of 75 years usually from herbo-mineral combinations. <em>Arumuga </em><em>Chendhuram</em> (ARC) is a herbo-mineral formulation cited in Siddha literature ‘<em>Siddha Vaithiya Thirattu’. </em>ARC was orally administered at higher dose 2gm/kg to the Wistar Albino rats in acute toxicity study and during 28 days of repeated (sub acute) toxicity study, at daily doses of 12, 24 &amp; 48mg/kg of body weight to the Wistar Albino rats. Type II collagen arthritis is another model for developing autoimmune arthritis. The immune pathogenesis mediated by T cell and B cell response to collagen. By this model, nearly 100% arthritis can be achieved. In our study, ARC after 42 days treatment reduced the arthritic swelling significantly and degree of inflammation evident to act against auto immune disorder.</p> M. Ramamurthy, V. Thanigavelan, S. Elansekaran, V. Srinivasan, P. Shanmugapriya, G.J. Christian Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Sun, 12 Jul 2020 02:45:15 +0800 A CASE REPORT ON CHARMADAL THROUGH PANCHAKARMA W.S.R. TO ECZEMA <p><em>Charmadal </em>is a type of <em>Kshudrakushta </em>characterized with symptoms such as redness, itching, pustules, pain and cracks in the skin and tenderness. Most of the symptoms of Eczema can be correlated with <em>Charmadal </em>as mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. A diagnosed case of Eczema came with chief complaints of red patches on skin associated with severe itching, burning and dryness over different body parts (on face, neck, upper arm) since 4 years with complaint of oozing of blood from the patches after itching. No satisfactory treatment is present except topical steroids, but in Ayurveda text line of treatment for <em>Charmadal </em>is present i.e., <em>Virechana Karma”</em>. Before giving <em>Virechana </em>treatment SCORAD (Scoring atopic dermatitis) was 26.55% and after follow up SCORAD 86.05%. Before <em>Virechana </em>treatment DLQI was 25% (extremely large effect on patient’s life) and after follow up DLQI was 4% (small effect on patient life). The results of the study showed that when <em>Virechana Karma</em> was performed<em>, </em>it increased the efficacy of oral Ayurveda medicines in the patient of <em>Charmadal. Virechana </em>improved the condition of patient to very much extent.</p> Parwati, Kavita, Swarnakant jena, Santosh Kumar Bhatted, Prasanth Dharmarajan Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Sun, 12 Jul 2020 02:54:53 +0800 UNDERSTANDING OF ANUVASANA BASTI (MEDICATED OIL ENEMA): COMPILATION FROM BRIHATTARYI <p><em>Basti</em> is one of the most important <em>Panchakarma</em> used in the treatment of various disorders. It is a method of administrating the medicine in the form of <em>Kwatha</em> or <em>Sneha</em> in the body through anal region or urinary or vaginal route. <em>Basti</em> in which <em>Sneha</em> is used for administration is known as <em>Anuvasana Basti</em>. <em>Vata</em> is the major cause in manifestation of diseases affecting the <em>Shakha</em>, <em>Koshtha</em> and <em>Marma</em>. <em>Anuvasana</em> <em>Basti</em> can be used a single therapy for various <em>Vataja Vikaras</em>. This can also be used as <em>Purva Karma</em> before <em>Niruha Basti</em> as well as <em>Paschata Karma </em>after<em> Niruha Basti</em>. Ancient Acharyas have mentioned the details of <em>Anuvasana Basti</em> in accordance with useful <em>Dravyas</em>, its indications, contraindications, <em>Basti Vidhi,</em> complications, importance, etc., <em>Samhitakaras</em> have also mentioned the different <em>Yogas</em> along with their specific indications. An attempt has been made here to review the concept of <em>Anuvasana Basti</em> in <em>Brihattaryi</em> and to study the different <em>Yogas</em> of <em>Anuvasana Basti</em> as mentioned in them.</p> Jasminbegam B. Momin, P.V.Kulkarni, V.E.Gogate Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Sun, 12 Jul 2020 03:04:02 +0800 A REVIEW ON STHAULYA (OBESITY) AND ITS MANAGEMENT THROUGH AYURVEDA <p>Although man has developed sophisticated machines, medical equipment and potent medicines, in spite of all these upgrade, he is lacking proper health. In a quest to achieve more of worldly pleasures and luxury, people are adopting a faulty lifestyle and the disease-causing risk factors and stress in their life are on increase mode. This is the fundamental reason being surge of lifestyle disorders these days. Where obesity is main and root cause of many other lifestyle disorder. A detail description of obesity by name of <em>Sthaulya </em>found<em> in Ayurvedic </em>literature but the material is Scatter and different opinion by different Acharya were there. Ayurveda manage the disorder in a holistic approach with Diet, Lifestyle, medication and <em>Sodhanakarma</em>. So, in present study detail review of <em>Sthaulya</em> with the aim to enlighten the different treatment approaches for the management of <em>Sthaulya </em>(Obesity).</p> Ankita, Shikha Chaudhary , Gunjan Sabarwal, Shivakumar S. Harti, Medha Kulkarni Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Sun, 12 Jul 2020 03:13:18 +0800 A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL STUDY OF CHANDRASHOORPAYAS (GARDEN CRESS SEED PORRIDGE) AS DIETARY SUPPLEMENT FOR LACTATING MOTHERS <p>In India many dietary supplements are given to lactating mothers for sustained and ample milk to nourish their baby. <em>Chandrashoora Payas</em> (Garden cress seeds porridge) is one such recipe given to nursing mothers to increase lactation. <strong>Objective:</strong> This study is planned to assess the role of <em>Chandrashoor Payas</em> as a dietary supplement in lactation deficiency (<em>Stanyakshaya</em>), taking control group of <em>Shatavari</em> Powder and milk to ascertain which is better. <em>Shatavari</em> powder is taken as a control group since it is a clinically proven galactagogue medicine in Ayurveda. <strong>Material and Methods:</strong> Total 64 lactating mothers diagnosed with lactation deficiency were screened for clinical trial, out of which 60 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and included in the trial. Selected patients were divided randomly in two groups by a simple random method. Study group was administered <em>Chandrashoora Payas </em>100ml in morning; and the control group was with 5gm <em>Shatavari</em> powder with 100ml milk for 45 days. Follow up visit was on every 15<sup>th</sup> day. Estimation of milk production and infant weight gain were assessed by comparing difference in grades.</p> <p><strong>Observations and </strong><strong>Results:</strong> Study revealed that both&nbsp;<em>Chandrashoorapayas </em>and&nbsp;<em>Shatavari </em>and milk produced significant improvement p&lt; 0.001 in most of the variables and were comparable in reliving all the symptoms of lactation deficiency. On comparison both the drugs show similar effect.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> No adverse effects were observed in the trial group, as safety parameters were within normal limit during the study and overall compliance to the treatment was good. Both the interventions were comprehensively effective in management of lack of lactation. <em>Chandrashoorapayas </em>is a dietary supplement which gives similar results as <em>Shatvari</em> which is a medicine.</p> Medha S.Kulkarni, Shital Pise Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Sun, 12 Jul 2020 03:30:48 +0800 INTER-RELATIONSHIP OF LIVER AS A PART OF HAYAT AL AZA (MORPHOLOGY) IN THE FORMATION OF TEMPERAMENT IN UNANI SYSTEM OF MEDICINE <p>Temperament occupies an important place in Unani Medicine and forms the basis of pathology, diagnosis and treatment. This concept was originally introduced by Hippocrates (460-370 BC) in which he stated that “It is more important to know what sort of person has a disease than to know what sort of disease a person has”. Ibn Sina says “Allah most beneficent has furnished every one and each of its member with a temperament which is entirely the most appropriate and best adopted for the performance of its functions and passive state”. Human interest in the liver is as old as the science of medicine. Since time immemorial it has been considered as one of the vital organs of a human body. It was during the Greco-Arabian period of medical history that the intimate relationship between the liver and the health of the individual was established. Considering liver as an important and essential organ, Hippocrates (460-377 BC) says “if we live a good life, it is because of the health of our liver” (Ibn-e-Zohr, 1989). Galen (131-210AD) believed that liver retained a dominant role as the “seat of sanguification and the source of veins”. According to Avicenna- “Physicians regard the liver as the seat of manufacture of the dense part of the humours” (Grunner, 1930). Avicenna further writes- “Liver is a large factory where due to digestive and metabolic changes, the various humours of the body are formed in plenty (Kabiruddin, 1947). According to Unani Physicians, humours play an important and deciding role in the creation of human temperament. Therefore it can be revealed that liver is an important metabolic organ, which plays an important role in the formation of temperament of a person.</p> Sameena Firdaus Simmy, Ferasat Ali, Mohd Mohsin Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Sun, 12 Jul 2020 03:39:02 +0800 THE CONCEPT OF IMMUNOMODULATION IN AYURVEDA W.S.R. TO ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN PREVENTING EMERGING INFECTIONS LIKE COVID 2019 <p>Ayurveda&nbsp;is one of the most renowned traditional systems of medicine that has survived and flourished from ages till date. The two basic aims of Ayurvedic science is to maintain the health of healthy person and curing the ill health of the diseased. Here is a comprehensive review of the Ayurvedic classical texts, to understand the Ayurvedic perspectives of immunomodulation w.s.r. to its significance in preventing emerging infections like COVID 2019 pandemic. <strong>Background:</strong> The review is prepared based on the Ayurvedic perspectives and practices of immunity described in various classical Ayurvedic text books like <em>Brhitrayis</em>, <em>Laghutrayis</em>, their commentaries and published research articles. <strong>Review Results: </strong>Ayurveda enlists various enhancers of immunity, which include <em>Dinacharya</em> (daily regimen), <em>Ritucharya</em> (seasonal regimen), proper diet, exercise, specific foods like milk, <em>Rasayanas</em> like <em>Guduchi</em> (<em>Tinospora cordifolia</em>), meditation, Yoga-pranayama, <em>Achara Rasayana</em> (good conduct of behaviour). The concept of <em>Vyaadhiksamatva</em> is not merely immunity against a specific infectious agent or disease like the concept of modern medicine. Rather, it denotes resistance against the loss of integrity, proportion and inter-relationship amongst the individual’s <em>Doshas </em>(biohumours) and <em>Dhatus</em> (tissues), which can be increased by various methods mentioned in Ayurveda<strong>. </strong><strong>Conclusion: </strong>New infections are emerging which are not manageable by conventional medicine like the COVID 2019 pandemic. Soit is high time to educate people about the valuable teachings on leading a healthy and subsequently a happier life with the help of the immunomodulatory techniques described in Ayurveda.</p> Sinimol. T.P, Emy S Surendran, Soumya M C Copyright (c) Sun, 12 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0800 NON PHARMACOLOGICAL APPROACH FOR TREATMENT OF OSMF- A REVIEW <p>Ancient medicine used herbs, for their medicinal purposes and theraeutic benefits. Herbs became important in the global context today, because they offer solutions to the various concerns faced by mankind. Herbal extracts have been proven effective because they interact within the body with the special chemical receptors. Nevertheless as such herbal medicinal products were part of human evolutionary cycle substituted with allopathic preparations. In the last few years because of usage of antimicrobials and antifungals drugs, many organisms with apparent side have gained resistance with negative consequences. Late resurgence towards herbal medicines is therefore on the horizon rise. The following manuscript sheds light on the various organic materials possible remedies for treating oral mucosal lesions. The study is to review the non-pharmacological therapies in the management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis.</p> Nandita Gautam, Shivalingesh KK, Satyaki Verma Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Sun, 12 Jul 2020 04:14:34 +0800 A CRITICAL STUDY OF DAGDHA VRANA (BURN INJURY) IN AYURVEDIC SYSTEM OF MEDICINE <p>In Ayurvedic classics use of medicinal, surgical and para surgical modalities for treatment of different ailments are given. The para surgical procedures like <em>Agnikarma, Ksharakarma</em> and <em>Raktamoksan</em> were commonly used by the Ayurvedic physicians. During the therapy like <em>Agnikarma</em> there were accidental burn injuries known as <em>Pramad dagdha</em> or <em>Ittartha dagdha</em>. According to nature of cause of burn it is of two types <em>Snigdha</em> and <em>Ruksa</em>. Acharya Sushruta has elaborately described the types, clinical features, treatment principles and <em>Upadrava</em> (complications) of <em>Dagdha vrana</em>. Acharya Charaka has mentioned burn wound as <em>Agantuja vrana. Dagdha vrana</em> (burn injury) and its management were also found in various treatise of Ayurveda written in different time periods. The paper is review of types, clinical features and management of the <em>Dagdha vrana (</em>burn injury) found in different ayurvedic texts.</p> Taifa Rozy, Barman Kumar Pankaj, Medhi Champak Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Sun, 12 Jul 2020 13:49:48 +0800 A REVIEW ON PASCHATA KARMA OF AHARA AND ITS EFFECT ON POSTPRANDIAL GLYCAEMIA W.S.R. SATAPADA GAMANA <p>Over the past several decades, the physical activities and fitness of Indian’s have significantly decreased which results in expand of non-communicable diseases where Diabetes is most common. Regular physical activity is accepted widely as an effective preventable measure for a variety of health risks as it helps in regulating blood glucose and other Physiological effects. Proper utilization of Glucose is very important. Limited instruction is available for post meal Procedure andabout physical activitywhich affects postprandial glycaemia. In this regard the present study is taken to find out the post dietary activities mentioned in Ayuveda and contemporary science. Study also implies that there is extensive scope of scientific research in this field in order to justify the textual references and to generate the data.</p> Sadaf Ahmed, Ankita, Medha Kulkarni, Shivakumar S. Harti Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Sun, 12 Jul 2020 16:06:05 +0800 CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF PURVA KARMA PRIOR TO NASYA W.S.R. SNEHA NASYA <p>Ayurveda<em> Panchakarmas</em> are an all-time big name for both Ayurveda doctors and patients. Their efficacy of targeting the body holistically and evacuating toxins, thereby, addressing most of the problems of an individual makes it a hit. This paper aims at estimating the contribution of <em>Purva Karma </em>(procedures prior to instillation of medicine) in the outcome, especially in the context of <em>Sneha Nasya </em>(instillation of unctuous medicine)<em>. </em>Nasal route of administration may help address the hitches accompanying to poor bioavailability, slow absorption, drug degradation, and possible adverse events in the gastro intestinal tract and avoids the first-pass metabolism in the liver. However, when considering nasal delivery<em>, </em>appropriate measures need to be taken to address the limitations of drug delivery in this region. <em>Purva Karma </em>starts with drug preparation and ends with stage of instillation of medicine (8 check points). The role of each of them on overcoming the limitations and delivering the results is reviewed.</p> Divya Virupaksha, Krishnan N, Ajoy Viswam, Naveen B. S Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Sun, 12 Jul 2020 16:43:31 +0800