International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr <div align="justify"> <p class="para1"><strong>International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research (IJAPR)</strong>&nbsp;is an international peer reviewed Monthly open access Online and Print journal. The aim of the journal is to increase the impact of research in both academic and industry, with strong emphasis on quality and originality. The journal promotes to publish the articles in the field of&nbsp;<strong>Ayurveda, Siddha, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Homeopathy and Allopathy</strong>&nbsp;systems of medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Researchers may submit (1). Original Research Articles (2). Review articles (3). Book Reviews (4). Short Communications/ Research Letter (5). Case Report (6). Letter to the Editor/Correspondence.</p> </div> en-US ijaprs@gmail.com (Dr B Srinivasulu M.D (Ayu.)) ijaprs@gmail.com (V Sowmya) Thu, 14 Jan 2021 02:51:49 +0800 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 EFFECT OF MRIDWEEKADI KASHAYA SEKA IN RETINAL HAEMORRHAGES ASSOCIATED WITH NON-PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY – A CLINICAL STUDY http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1726 <p>Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of acquired vision loss in middle-aged and elderly people globally. In modern science, other than the meticulous control of diabetes there is no proven non-invasive management for the prevention or cure of Diabetic retinopathy.</p> <p>In this study, mild to moderate Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) with retinal haemorrhages is considered as a <em>Timira </em>(symptomatically) and as <em>Abhishyanda </em>(considering etiopathogenesis) with <em>Kapha-pitta </em>predominance. <em>Mridweekadi kashaya</em>, predominantly <em>Kapha Pitta samana</em>, was selected for the study to be used as <em>Seka. </em></p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>The study design was Interventional- pre and post evaluation without control, sample size fixed as 30 eyes. <em>Mridweekadi kashaya </em>was used as <em>Seka</em> for 21 days, twice daily. Fundus photographs were taken prior to commencement of <em>Seka</em>, on the 22nd day and then on 30th and 60th day after completion of the procedure. Change in extent of retinal hemorrhages were assessed as visualized in Fundus photographs and direct ophthalmoscopy. Change in visual acuity was assessed by LogMar Visual acuity chart and change in contrast sensitivity by Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity chart consecutively, prior to the treatment, on the 10th day, 22nd day and then on 30th and 60th day after completion of procedure. Statistical analysis was done using Wilcoxon signed rank test and Paired t test according to the variable.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Control in retinal haemorrhages associated with NPDR and improvement in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong><em>Mridweekadi kashaya seka </em>is effective in controlling retinal haemorrhages associated with NPDR.</p> Navaneetha K.P, Sunil Kumar S, Kusumam Joseph Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1726 Wed, 13 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0800 AYURVEDIC MANAGEMENT OF MALE INFERTILITY DUE TO OLIGOSPERMIA AND VARICOCELE: A CASE STUDY http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1727 <p>Infertility is defined as the failure of a couple to achieve conception after one year of regular sexual intercourse without any contraception. Male infertility can be defined as any health issue in a man that lowers his chance of impregnating a fertile female partner. Current data reveals that about one third of all infertility cases is due to male factor defect. Oligospermia is a condition of suboptimal concentration of spermatozoa in the ejaculated semen to cause successful fertilization of an ovum. Hence the management of this issue is of utmost importance in the current days. Ayurveda addresses the male factor defects under broad classification of <em>Ashtavidhasukradushti</em> in which oligospermia can be correlated to <em>Ksheenasukra</em>. A 33yr old male with 3 years of married life diagnosed with oligospermia, increased viscosity of semen and bilateral grade I varicocele and wife aged 26yrs with regular, ovulatory cycles and with apparently no reproductive issues, were treated according to Ayurvedic principles. After <em>Deepana pachana</em> with <em>Pippalyasavam</em> and <em>Vicharana snehapana</em> with <em>Sukumara ghritha </em>and <em>Mahakalyanaka ghritha, </em>repeated <em>Virechana</em> with <em>Avipathi choornam </em>was given. <em>Kokilaksha Kashayam </em>and<em> Varanadi Kashayam </em>was given internally. <em>Bala thailam</em> and <em>Pinda thailam </em>was advised for external application. Follow up showed improvement in Seminal parameters in terms of sperm concentration, viscosity and resulted in pregnancy. The present case signifies the importance of Ayurvedic treatment in bringing a positive outcome in the field of male infertility.</p> Jiji V, Priyanka R, Asha ST, Asha Sreedhar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1727 Wed, 13 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0800 CRITIQUE ON THE CONCEPT OF PSYCHONEUROIMMUNOLOGY (PNI) IN AYURVEDA AND YOGA w.s.r. TO COVID-19 PANDEMIC http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1728 <p>The COVID-19 outbreak has prompted significant levels of psychological distress and critical effect on emotional wellness as well as challenged health care systems across the globe. Such distress is accompanied with alterations in immune function including expanded danger of viral respiratory tract infections. It has shaken the entire world with this worldwide crisis. The panic situation created by the disease along with the unfamiliar way of conduct imposed several psychological impacts on human life. Many can’t cope up with the situation on their own and are in need of an intervention such as Psychological First Aid. Fear, anxiety, future concerns, interpersonal relationships issues, behavioral issues, domestic abuses, separation anxiety are a few among the psychological issues reported. It is basic to comprehend that these depend on a more profound comprehension of how choice less mindfulness coordinates the neurological, immune and metabolic frameworks with psychological processes to work overall. In this review article, an attempt has been made to critically enlighten the ancient and recent development of the Psychoneuroimmuology (PNI) in Ayurveda and <em>Yoga</em> in concern with Covid-19 Pandemic.</p> Golghate Ravi K, Nagdeve Pranali A, Patil Rajendra V Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1728 Wed, 13 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0800 MANAGEMENT OF VICHARCHIKA (LICHEN SIMPLEX CHRONICUS) BY SHAMANA CHIKITSA: A CASE STUDY http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1729 <p>In Ayurveda, most of the skin diseases are included under <em>Kushtha</em>. It can be classified into two groups which are <em>Mahakushtha</em> and <em>Kshudrakushtha</em>. <em>Vicharchika</em> is one among the <em>Kshudrakushtha</em>. According to classical texts, it can be characterised by <em>Kandu</em> (itching sensation), <em>Shyava</em> (blackish brown discolouration), <em>Pidaka</em> (eruptions), <em>Bahusrava</em> (excessive exudation), <em>Raji</em> (marked lining/lichenification), <em>Atiruja</em> (excessive pain) and <em>Rukshata</em> (dryness). <em>Vicharchika</em> can be correlated with Lichen Simplex Chronicus (LSC) based on its clinical presentation. LSC is a highly pruritic, circumscribed plaque or plaques of lichenified skin due to chronic scratching or rubbing. <em>Vicharchika</em> can be treated with <em>Nidan parivarjana </em>(Avoidance of etiological factors), <em>Shodhana chikitsa</em> (Purification therapy) and <em>Shamana chikitsa</em> (Palliative therapy). The present case study deals with a 45 years old male patient having complaints of severe itching in the palm of both hands associated with marked lining, dryness and thickened skin at the affected site for 5-6 months. This case is diagnosed as <em>Vicharchika</em> (Lichen Simplex Chronicus). For treatment <em>Shamana chikitsa</em> was administered for 1 month which showed good result.</p> Md Tanzil Ansari, Sukumar Ghosh, Jaya Kuila Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1729 Wed, 13 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0800 SHUKRALA (SPERMATOGENIC) POTENTIALITY OF MADHYAMA PANCHAMOOLA- A REVIEW http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1730 <p>Propagation of human race get affected by both male and female factors. Male infertility contributes 50% of total infertility. <em>Ksheenashukra </em>(Oligospermia) is one of the commonest conditions for male infertility caused by <em>Vata</em> <em>pitta</em> <em>dosha</em>. Ayurvedic approach to rectify pathology of <em>Ksheenashukra</em> is through <em>Vrushya </em>(Aphrodisiac), <em>Shukrajanaka, </em>(Spermatogenic) <em>Shukravardhaka </em>(enhancing Semen and Sperm) <em>Shukrapravataka </em>(improve the ejaculatory process) and<em> Shukrala </em>etc pharmacological activities. The drug which enhances<em> Shukra</em> (Semen and Sperm) is named as <em>Shukrala</em> (Spermatogenic) activity. <em>Madhyama panchamoola</em> a group of drugs comprising of <em>Bala (Sida cordifolia) Punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa), Eranda (Ricinus communis), Mudgaparni</em> (<em>Teramnus labialis</em>) and <em>Mashaparni (Vigna trilobata). </em>Review of literature reveals that each of these drugs has <em>Balya </em>(Strength promoter), <em>Vrushya</em>, <em>Rasayana</em> (Rejuvenation<em>), Jeevaniya </em>(Life promoting) and<em> Shukrajanana </em>(Spermatogenic) properties.<em> Madhyama panchamoola </em>as a group not had been evaluated for its potentiality as <em>Shukrala</em> but each of them individually proven for antioxidant, spermatogenic, antidiabetic and hepatoprotective activities. Phytoconstituents present in this viz., Ecdysterone, Boeravinone, Rotenoids, Octacosanol, Vitexin, Quercetin and Bergenin have been confirmed for spermatogenic activity. Reactive oxygen species identified as cause for male infertility. Hence antioxidant is used as a source of treatment. Components of <em>Madhyama panchamoola</em> in addition to antioxidant activity have other required pharmacological activities in the management of <em>Ksheenashukra</em>. This review upholds the compatibility ingredients of <em>Madhyama pancha moola</em> to be potential <em>Shukrala</em> combination.</p> Nagendra chary.M, Lalitha B.R, T.Anil kumar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1730 Wed, 13 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0800 APAMARGAKSHARA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CERVICAL EROSION – A PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1731 <p>Cervical erosion happens when cells that line the inside of cervix grow on the outside of cervix. That means the squamous epithelium of the cervix is replaced by columnar epithelium. Nowadays it is very common among women in reproductive age. The women with cervical erosion complaints of vaginal discharge, vulval itching, dyspareunia, low back ache etc. In the parallel medical field it is managed by electrocautery, cryotherapy and CO<sub>2 </sub>laser vaporization. This condition can be correlated with <em>Garbhashayamukhagata Vrana</em> or <em>Karnini Yonivyapada</em>. In Ayurveda, it is treated by <em>Ksharakarma </em>along with internal medications.<em> Ksharakarma </em>itself is sufficient to clear the wound and to promote the healing process. This reviewing is done to know the pharmacological effect of<em> Ksharakarma</em> using <em>Apamarga Kshara. </em>It concluded that the procedure (<em>Ksharakarma</em>) and the drug used to perform the procedure (<em>Apamarga</em>) have the capacity to enhance the reduction of severity of the condition and gradually lead to the complete cure of the same. It is due to the efficacy of<em> Ksharakarma</em> to clear the unhealthy epithelial cells and the presence of wound healing components like tannins, flavonoids, antioxidants etc. in <em>Apamarga</em>. In effect it has equivalent result as modern management, cost effective, easy procedure, brief procedure, no or less complications, less chances for the recurrence of the same.</p> Neetha Surendran, Anita K Patel Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1731 Wed, 13 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0800 THERAPEUTIC ACTION OF HINGU IN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: A LITERARY REVIEW http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1661 <p>Man has been struggling to get remedies for various life-threatening disorders which are common in the day to day life of the busy world. Many lifestyle disorders such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, respiratory disorders, skin diseases, etc. arise due to incompatible diet, polluted atmosphere, sedentary life style, lack of exercise, lack of proper sleep, etc. Ayurveda, the science of life, advices to follow<em> Dinacharya, Ritucharya, Sadvritta</em> etc for the benefit of the common man to enhance longevity. Ayurveda utilizes the wide range of herbal drugs either as single drug or in combination for the purpose of health care remedies. The phyto constituents present in these drugs play the major role in treating the diseases. Ferula foetida, known as <em>Hingu</em> in Ayurveda has promising therapeutic value due to the presence of chemical constituents like sulphide derivatives, volatile oil etc. Many studies revealed the various pharmacological actions of <em>Hingu</em> such as carminative, antispasmodic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, etc. This review highlights the available information on the drug <em>Hingu</em> by due consideration to the action of <em>Hingu</em> on the respiratory system and the formulations with <em>Hingu</em> as an ingredient as available in the Ayurvedic texts in treating respiratory disorders<em>. </em>Some other aspects are also discussed in the review.</p> Megha Murali, Ragini Kumari, Kirti Soni, Sujeet Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1661 Wed, 13 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0800 SIGNIFICANCE OF AHARA-VIDHI-VISHESHAYATAN IN TODAY’S ERA http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1538 <p>Ayurveda is the science focusing on the way of living. It is a lifestyle which must be adopted for a healthy and sustainable living. Food has remained an important part of our cultures, faith, regions, communities etc. It is the basic requirement of life and plays a crucial role in the nourishment and protection of the beings. Food not only meets the bodily requirements but also nurtures the mind, senses and soul. In this regard we have the concept of <em>Ashtahar vidhi visheshayatan</em>, which emphasizes on the way and rules of dietetics. It emphasizes on the wholesomeness of the food and it’s considerations with respect to individuality. This age old concept is very much relevant in today’s time also. The following article focuses on this concept, its application and significance in modern era. Here we focus on these 8 factors individually and take detailed insight into this novel concept.</p> Bandana Sharma, M.B.Gaur Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1538 Wed, 13 Jan 2021 23:12:34 +0800 HYPOTHYROIDISM – A MANIFESTATION OF AVARANA http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1733 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The modern era is witnessing a dramatic increase in the incidence of endocrine disorders. The notorious and the non specific nature of the symptoms many a time leads to clinical misdiagnosis. One such condition is Hypothyroidism. An early accurate diagnosis of hypothyroidism is essential as late management may lead to complications as diabetes, IHD etc. For decades the standard treatment of hypothyroidism is levothyroxine. The side effects of levothyroxine as hair loss, headache, menstrual irregularities etc. are forcing the mankind to go for an alternative treatment. To evolve a good treatment a complete understanding of hypothyroidism on Ayurvedic basis is highly essential. <strong>Aim:</strong> To understand hypothyroidism according to Ayurveda. <strong>Materials &amp; Methods</strong>: Ayurvedic Samhitas, modern medical text books and websites. <strong>Result: </strong>Hypothyroidism can be understood as ‘<em>Amayukta Kaphavruta Udanavata’</em> according to Ayurveda. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Depending on several factors as <em>Dosha, Nidana, Samprapti</em> and <em>Lakshanas</em> hypothyroidism can be understood as <em>Kaphavruta udanavata</em>.</p> S.Gnana Prasuna, B. Harinatha Chary, Manu.R Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1733 Wed, 13 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0800 NEURO-ENDOCRINE-IMMUNE MODULATION BY AYURVEDIC RASAYANA DRUGS http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1734 <p>Ayurveda which literally means “the science of life” is the ancient Indian system of medicine. <em>Rasayana</em> is a specialized branch of Ayurveda. The drugs attributed with <em>Rasayana</em> properties are mentioned to delay the process of ageing, enhance the mental and cognitive functions and deliver freedom from a number of diseases including those caused by infectious organisms. All these activities of <em>Rasayana</em> drugs seem to be associated with neuro-endocrine-immune systems. In this study we have reviewed the growing inter-relationship between the neuro-endocrine-immune systems and stress as a neuro-endocrine-immune phenomenon. Some important Ayurvedic <em>Rasayana</em> drugs including <em>Aswagandha</em> (<em>Withania somnifera</em>), <em>Tulsi</em> (<em>Ocimum sanctum</em>), <em>Guduchi</em> (<em>Tinospora cordifolia</em>), <em>Shilajit</em> (<em>Asphalt</em>), <em>Brahmi</em> (<em>Bacopa monnieri</em>) and few others along with their pharmacological actions on the above three systems and stress as well have also been reviewed. It has been observed that most of them tend to exhibit their activities by modulating the neuro-endocrine-immune systems along with anti-stress/adaptogenic capability. The scientific inter-relationship between the three systems has been taken as the model reference. Similar actions are expected from other <em>Rasayana</em> drugs too. Therefore <em>Rasayana</em> drugs in Ayurveda can be evaluated and used as neuro-endocrine-immune modulators.</p> Sudeep Kumar Brahma Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1734 Wed, 13 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0800 RELEVANCE OF LASUNA RASAYANA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF OPHTHALMIC NEURALGIA WITH RESPECT TO VATAPARYAYA- A CASE REPORT http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1735 <p>Trigeminal neuralgia, otherwise known as suicidal disease is the severe and recurrent pain in the distribution of one or more branches of Trigeminal nerve. Patient usually presents with sharp electric shock like pain in face or mouth which lasts for seconds to minutes. This condition may lead the patient to a stage of depression and suicidal tendency. In ophthalmic neuralgia V1 branch of trigeminal nerve is affected where the pain can be interpreted as coming from nose, eyes and head in the areas around the scalp. The management involves anticonvulsants, antidepressants and surgical procedures. <em>Vathaparyaya</em> described by Acharyas shows a close similarity with ophthalmic neuralgia in which vitiated <em>Vata</em> causes pain in the areas of eyelashes and eyebrows. The management of <em>Vataparya</em> is given as same as that of the <em>Vatabhishyanda</em>. In present study, it is observed that Ayurvedic management has provided a significant reduction in intensity and frequency of pain.</p> Sreekumar K, Athulya N B Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1735 Wed, 13 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0800 EFFECT OF APAMARGA KSARTAIL UTTARBASTI AND PHALAGHRITA IN BILATERAL TUBAL BLOCKAGE- A CASE STUDY http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1706 <p>The present case study was carried out to evaluate the role of <em>Uttar</em> <em>basti</em> with in tubal blockage, in order to establish it as a safer and cost effective Ayurvedic treatment modality. The criteria for selection of tubal blockage diagnosed in diagnostic laproscopy. <em>Uttar</em> <em>basti</em> was administered, after cessation of menstruation, to the screened patient through hematological, urinary and serological (HIV, VDRL, HBsAG) investigations. The result suggests that <em>Uttar</em> <em>basti</em> is a highly significant treatment for tubal blockage. <em>Uttar</em> <em>basti</em> is ideal local therapy is to be adopted in tubal block. <em>Apamarga</em> <em>ksar</em> <em>tail</em> is very good <em>Vata</em>&nbsp;<em>kaphashamak guna</em>&nbsp;and <em>Lekhan</em> properties,<em>&nbsp;Taila</em>&nbsp;is having the property to reach minute channels in body<em>. Phala ghruta</em>&nbsp;is best for all&nbsp;<em>Yonirogas</em>, also to reduce&nbsp;<em>Dhaha</em>&nbsp;which is due to&nbsp;<em>Kshar tail.</em></p> Komal Gurjar, Poonam Choudhary, K.Bharathi, B.Pushpalatha Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1706 Thu, 14 Jan 2021 00:44:15 +0800 MANAGEMENT OF ASRIGDARA THROUGH VIRECHANA KARMA http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1736 <p>Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is a state of Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) without any clinically detectable organic, systemic &amp; iatrogenic cause (pelvic pathology like tumor, inflammations excluded). DUB represents a particular type of AUB and is defined as excessive, prolonged and irregular bleeding of endometrium with frequency less than 21 days, duration more than seven days that does not cause pain and does not involve any organic lesion. Based on the clinical features it can be compared with <em>Asrigdara</em> mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. <em>Asrigdara</em> is one of the commonly met problems in Gynae OPD among peri menopausal women. One half of women among the AUB will have DUB. 10 – 15% of women experience episodes of DUB at some time during their reproductive age. This study was conducted in a single patient. A lady of age 41 years, having problem of prolonged bleeding since one and half years came to OPD of Prasuti and Stri roga, National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur. She had taken hormonal preparations and haemostatics for five continuous months along with D&amp; C done for same problem, after wards bleeding increased even more and then doctors have given hysterectomy advice as the last resort. Patient was posted for <em>Virechan Karma</em> as classical schedule owing to her <em>Agni</em> and <em>Vyayamshakti. Snehapan</em> was done by plain <em>Go Ghrita</em> and <em>Virechan</em> was done by <em>Trivritalehyam</em>. Followed by few oral medicines after <em>Samsarjana Karma</em>. The patient was followed up for three months. There is significant reduction in amount of blood flow along with increased inter – menstrual period. Thus, we can conclude from the study that Ayurveda regimen plays an effective role in management of <em>Asrigdara</em>.</p> Khushboo Jha, Subhadra, K. Bharathi, Sonu Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 http://ijapr.in/index.php/ijapr/article/view/1736 Wed, 13 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0800